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3/?^       METROPOLIS 






Thirty  Miles  round  iKindon. 





The  object  of  this  pocket  companion  to  the  excursionist  is 
sufficiently  indicated  by  the  title,  the  desire  having  been 
throughout  to  supply  a  compact  and  yet  compendious  guide 
to  the  chief  places  of  interest  and  attraction  to  be  found  within 
a  circuit  of  about  thirty  miles  around  the  metropolis.  Those 
who  are  limited  in  time  or  purse  need  not  tarry  in  town 
on  account  of  distance  being  necessarily  the  only  condition 
that  "  lends  enchantment  to  the  view."  If  they  can  only  steal 
a  few  hours  from  the  exigencies  of  business,  they  can  for  the 
most  moderate  outlay,  that  even  a  little  extra  dinner  indulgence 
would  exceed,  be  transported  by  the  spirit  of  steam  to  some  of 
the  rural  retreats  on  the  outskirts  of  our  busy  Babylon,  that 
will  bring  them  within  the  sight  of  scenery  as  beautiful,  and 
places  as  fraught  with  rich  historical  associations,  as  though 
they  had  been  wafted  beyond  the  range  of  a  day's  journey. 
To  serve  as  a  gossiping  companion  by  the  way,  pointing  out 
tlie  remarkable  features  of  an  old  building,  or  the  purpose  for 
which  a  modern  one  has  been  erected,  is  the  principal  aim  of 
our  ambition,  and  if  by  throwing  into  our  description  a  little 
of  that  discursive  matter,  which  gives  a  zest  to  even  the  shortest 
trip,  an  additional  pleasure  is  imparted,  the  small  volume  that 
we  haw  furnished  with  this  design  will  not  be  felt  as  an 



unwelcome  incumbrance  to  the  coat-pocket.  We  have  endea- 
voured to  eschew  such  unnecessary  antiquarian  discussions  as 
would  prove  only  superfluous  to  the  cursory  visitor,  who  can 
find  them  elaborately  detailed  in  larger  works,  whenever  he 
shall  desire  to  look  for  them — and,  instead,  an  attempt  has 
been  made  to  supply  precisely  that  information  which  will 
prove  of  the  greatest  interest,  when  the  place  described  is 
brought  under  personal  notice. 

Few  of  a  tolerably  imaginative  temperament  have  coolly 
gazed  through  the  medium  of  a  bookseller's  shop-window 
upon  some  landscape  engraving,  picturing  the  beauties  of  a 
picturesque  spot,  without  irresistibly  having  their  thoughts 
directed  to  the  same  locality,  and  their  inclination  bent  on  the 
achievement  of  an  excursion  thither.  A  chance  sketch  of 
English  scenery,  or  a  county  map,  casually  encountered,  has  a 
wonderful  tendency  to  disturb  the  steady  train  of  our  reflections, 
sending  susceptible  folks  off  at  once  in  quest  of  railway  stations, 
and  considerably  multiplying  the  number  of  pleasure-trips 
taken  during  the  sunny  days  of  summer  and  autumn.  "We 
would  fain  give  to  those  thus  influenced  a  few  hints  about  the 
philosophy  of  rambling,  the  best  mode  of  getting  enjoyment 
out  of  it,  and  the  advantages  to  be  derived  from  these  occa- 
sional excursions.  A  walking-stick,  in  the  first  place,  is  a  very 
serviceable  companion,  and — in  default  of  a  more  agreeable 
one — a  little  volume  of  descriptive  poetry  well  chosen,  for 
perusal  during  the  hours  of  rest  and  re&eshment,  gives  a 


wholesome  relish  to  our  appreciation  of  Nature.  We  catch  the 

true  spirit  of  many  a  British  bard  under  these  circumstances. 

In  fact,  some  of  the  greatest  delights  of  a  summer  ramble  are 

derived  from  the  association  of  objects  around  us  with  the 

brilliant  thoughts  and  glowing  imagery  with  which  they  have 

been  invested  by  the  poets.    It  should  never  be  said  of  our 

wayside  wanderer,  in  the  words  of  one  of  our  most  reflective 

minstrels — 

"  The  primrose  by  the  river's  trim, 
A  yellow  primrose  was  to  him, 
And  it  was  nothing  move." 

But  we  would  have  him  acquire  the  habit — which  a  taste  for 
literature  easily  imparts — of  rendering  everything  he  sees 
suggestive  of  something  that  has  been  said  or  thought  con- 
cerning it,  and  he  will  by  this  process  find  its  charms  wonder- 
fully multiplied.  It  is  in  this  ready  and  heartfelt  consciousness 
of  the  links  that  bind  animate  and  inanimate  nature  together 
that  the  charms  of  a  rural  excursion  really  consist.  We  would 
thus  have  our  rambler  somewhat  of  a  botanist — not  a  mere 
expounder  of  hard  names  with  Walker-only- knows-how-many 
syllables — ^but  a  kind  of  roadside  florist,  who  can  recognise 
flowering  plants  by  their  native  English  appellations,  and 
would  rather  leave  the  violet  blooming  on  its  shady  bank  than 
ruthlessly  dissect  it  to  explore  the  arrangement  of  pistils  and 
corolla.  A  smattering  of  entomology  also,  is  not  by  any  means 
to  be  despised.  Your  true  lover  of  the  country  would  not  even 
crush  a  spider  in  his  lair,  nor  crunch  under  his  ruthless  heel 


the  humblest  beetle  that  ever  twirled  its  antennae  in  the  sun- 
shine. "We  can  then  follow  the  golden-belted  bee  to  his  own 
honeyed  home,  and  lulled  by  the  drowsy  humming  of  his 
wings,  plunge  into  a  dreamy  reverie  about  the  internal  philo- 
sophy of  his  hive,  and  start  wild  comparisons  with  social 
communities.  We  can  then  enter  into  the  fullest  sympathy 
with  butterflies,  and  share  the  exuberance  of  their  own 
apparently  intense  enjoyment ;  or,  bending  over  a  stagnant 
pool,  we  can  dabble  delightedly  in  duck-weed,  and  watch  with 
carious  eye  the  chase  of  a  fugitive  aquatic  insect  by  some 
gawky  pirate  of  the  pond,  who,  after  skating  along  in  ptirsuit 
of  his  victim  with  marvellous  celerity  of  motion,  sits  gently 
down  in  the  mud  at  the  bottom  and  amuses  himself  by  sending 
up,  juggler-fashion,  a  series  of  bright  bubbling  beads  to  break 
on  the  surface  as  a  kind  of  after-dinner  relaxation.  There  is 
indeed  no  limit  to  the  odd  fancies  which  crowd  in  upon  us 
during  these  excursive  perambulations,  enlisting  our  interest 
in  the  veriest  trifles,  to  confess  which,  at  other  times,  would  be 
a  species  of  avowed  insanity.  Yet  these  apparently  insignifi- 
cant items  are  the  sand  grains  that  form  the  mountain — the 
component  particles  of  that  great  aggregate  of  happiness 
which  may  be  obtained  in — and  which  we  trust  all  our  readers 
may  derive  from — a  summer  day's  ramble. 
Every  year  when 

"  Summer  retnms  and  nature  b  green. 
And  the  cuckoo  is  heard,  and  the  siAllow  is  seen," 


man — that  is  a  susceptible  being  capable  of  clairvoyance  under 
solar  mesmerism — experiences  in  the  soles  of  his  feet  an 
invincible  desire  to  export  himself  somewhere.  He  is  seized 
with  an  alarming  horror  of  his  domicile,  and  is  haunted  in  his 
dreams  by  spectral  steamers,  phantom  footpaths,  and  visionary 
vehicles.  He  has  a  thirst  for  change — this  must  be  quenched: 
a  longing  for  locomotion — this  must  be  gratified.  Some  fine 
morning  a  friend  calls  at  his  residence — he  has  vanished, 
exhaled,  evaporated.  A  month  passes  by,  and  he  is  again 
seen,  with  a  hoe  darkened  by  the  sun,  and  a  purse  lightened 
by  the  journey.  But  the  intervening  time  has  been  to  him 
fraught  with  pleasant  memories,  and  he  has  inflated  his  lungs 
with  a  stock  of  unpolluted  oxygen  that  will  enable  him  to 
breathe  upon  credit  for  the  next  twelvemonth.  To  all  who 
can  emancipate  themselves  from  town  thraldom,  and  who  have 
the  opportunity  of  getting  away,  even  into  the  suburbs,  we 
would  most  emphatically  urge  them  to  go  and  do  likewise. 
Let  them  seize  every  chance  of  thus  turning  a  fine  day  to  the  best 
advantage.  The  moil  and  turmoil  of  the  human  hive  renders 
an  escape  to  the  region  of  trees  and  flowers  a  privilege  not  to 
be  lightly  despised,  and  the  eye  is  not  less  clear,  nor  the  hand 
less  dexterous,  for  the  slight  remission  of  their  employment. 
And  then  going,  like 

"  One  who  long  in  populous  cities  pent. 
Where  houses  thick,  and  sewers  annoy  the  air, 
Forth  issuing  on  a  summer's  morn  to  breathe. 


Among  the  pleasant  villages  and  fkrma 
Adjoined,  from  each  thing  met  conceives  delight. 
The  smell  of  grain,  or  tedded  gross,  or  kine. 
Or  dairy,  rural  sights,  and  mral  sounds——" 

he  shall  return  with  renewed  energy  to  his  avocation,  and  find 

that  these  simple  pleasures  are  the  best  and  most  enduring. 

Ha>'ing,  therefore,  now  fully  prepared  the  reader  for  the 

enjoyment  of  one  of  those  excursive  trips  which  we  are  about 

to  indicate  and  describe,  we  may  confidently  affirm  that  if 

anybody  takes  an  excursion  into  his  head  without  putting  this 

volume  into  his  pocket  he  deserve  to  be  :  no  I  we  vrill 

not  be  too  severe — as  the  man  says  in  the  play,  the  crime 

carries  its  own  ponishment  along  with  it. 




HOUSE,  &c.  &c. 


THE  first  excursion 
which  we  propose  to 
describe  is  one  long 
familiar  to  the  metro- 
politan resident  by 
name,  but  replete  with 
historical  and  local 
associations,  that  are 


too  little  known,  it  will  form  an  appropriate  commencement 
to  our  depictions  of  the  scenery  and  antiquities  that  may  be 
encountered  even  in  the  shortest  ramble  about  the  environs. 
An  omnibus — of  which  there  are  plenty  to  be  met  with,  every 
hour  of  the  day,  from  the  City  and  Tottenham  Court-road — 
will  furnish  a  conveyance  to  Hampstead,  at  once  convenient 
and  economical,  and  relieve  the  pedestrian  from  the  least 
interesting  and  most  fatiguing  portion  of  his  journey.  Passing 
through  Camden  Town — which,  notwithstanding  its  present 
extent,  is  one  of  the  most  recently  erected  suburbs,  having  been 
first  built  upon  in  1791,  on  the  manor  falling  into  the  posses- 
sion of  the  Marquis  of  Camden — we  have  the  line  of  the  North- 
Western  Railway  branching  oflf  to  our  left,  and  Chalk  Farm, 
once  so  noted  in  the  annals  of  duelling,  a  little  beyond.  At 
Haverstock  Hill,  where  the  ascent  is  palpable  enough  to  make 
a  slower  pace  necessary  and  a  retrospective  glance  at  the 
forest  of  chimneys  beneath  as  obtainable,  we  have  on  the  left 
of  the  road  a  cottage,  now  split  into  two  separate  dwellings, 
formerly  the  residence  of  Sir  Bichard  Steele,  the  associate  of 
Addison,  and  the  busy  contributor  to  the  "  Tatler."  The  road, 
which  speedily  assumes  a  very  rural  aspect,  though  studded 
with  elegant  villas  in  every  direction,  next  leads  past  Down- 
shire  Hill,  a  pretty  vista  giving  a  distant  glimpse  of  Highgate 
Church  and  the  houses  round  Kentish  Town,  anciently  bearing 
the  name  of  Cantislares,  or  Cantlers.  It  now  belongs  chiefly  to 
the  possessions  of  St.  Paul's  Cathedral,  as  ecclesiastical  pro- 
perty. Soon  after  we  enter  the  main  street  of  Hampstead,  and 
here,  alighting  from  our  vehicle,  we  may  proceed  to  reconnoitre 
this  ancient  and  admired  resort  of  the  London  rambler. 

The  Romans — that  wonderful  people,  who  were  the  first  to 
find  out  those  attractive  situations  which  modem  judgment 
has  since  sanctioned  and  improved — were  evidently  located 
here  for  some  time,  and  many  Roman  antiquities  have  been 
discovered  at  various  periods,  particularly  near  the  "Wells,  in 
1774.  Ethelred  made  this  district  a  present  to  Westminster 
Abbey  in  986 ;  but  as  it  then  only  contained  five  cottages,  the 


benefaction  was  of  less  consideration  than  it  would  be  now, 
when  it  includes  nearly  five  thousand.  In  the  reign  of  Henry 
the  Eighth  it  had  acquired  a  wonderful  reputation  among 
laundresses,  and  the  nobility  were  wont  to  send  their  hnen 
hither  to  be  bleached,  in  the  belief  that  peculiarly  cleansing 
properties  were  here  attached  to  the  two  elements  of  air  and 
water.  For  a  short  time  the  county  members  were  elected  on 
the  heath,  but  the  privilege  was  lost  in  1701,  and  from  that 
time  the  chief  interest  is  connected  with  the  eminent  literary 
characters,  who  made  Hampstead  a  place  of  frequent  resort 
and  residence.  At  a  tavern  called  "  The  Upper  Flask" — the 
sign  is  still  perpetuated — the  celebrated  "  Kit-cat  Club"  was 
originally  held,  under  the  management  of  its  eccentric  sponsor, 
Christopher  Cat,  and  here  Addison,  Steele,  Richardson  (the 
novelist)  Pope,  Gay,  Arbuthnot,  and  afterwards  Akenside  and 
Dr.  Johnson,  with  a  host  of  other  celebrities,  used  frequently 
to  assemble.  The  Church  of  St.  John's  was  built  in  1747;  but 
the  increasing  population  rendering  its  want  of  accommodation 
severely  felt,  it  has  been  recently  enlarged  to  nearly  double  its 
former  extent,  at  a  cost  of  £3,000.  There  is  a  chapel  in  "Well- 
walk,  where  formerly  persons  were  married  without  fees  on 
condition  of  ordering  their  wedding  dinner  at  the  Wells,  which 
was  of  course  charged  for  in  proportion.  These  wells  enjoyed 
much  celebrity  in  the  last  century,  as  containing  a  chalybeate 
spring  suitable  for  many  complaints;  but  they  have  become 
latterly  quite  deserted  and  forgotten.  Passing  on  to  the  Heath, 
throned  upon  an  elevation  of  nearly  400  feet  above  the  sea 
level,  there  is  a  magnificent  prospect  spread  forth  on  every 
side.  The  mighty  maze  of  London,  with  its  myriad  house- 
tops, lies  mapped  out  in  the  hollow  towards  the  south,  whilst 
rising  amidst  the  smoky  vapour,  that  hangs  over  the  city  like 
a  cloud,  may  be  recognised  the  massive  dome  of  St.  Paul's, 
the  towers  of  Westminster  Abbey,  and  the  New  Houses  of 
Parliament,  the  thread-like  elevation  of  the  Monument,  and 
most  of  the  more  elevated  pubhc  edifices.  Beyond  may  be 
traced  the  blue  outline  of  the  Surrey  hiUs,  even  to  Banstead 


Downs.  On  the  other  side  the  view  is  even  more  varied  and 
extensive.  With  the  condition  of  a  clear  atmosphere,  the  eye 
can  embrace  from  this  eminence  Windsor,  Harrow-on-the-Hill, 
Ashley  Hills  (thirty  miles  distant),  Finchley,  Hanslop  steeple, 
in  Northamptonshire,  within  eight  miles  of  Northampton ;  and 
the  range  of  the  Langdon  Hills  in  Essex,  full  thirty  miles  east; 
besides  numerous  places  within  the  circumference,  of  inferior 
note.  Around,  in  the  immediate  neighbourhood,  are  Rosslyn 
House,  and  Bellsize,  an  old  Manor  Hall;  Parliament  Hill, 
where  there  is  an  ancient  tumulus;  the  Vale  of  Health,  sheltered 
between  the  hills;  North-End,  close  to  the  Heath;  West-End, 
half-a-mile  to  the  south  west;  Fortune  Green,  half-a-mile  west; 
and  Child's  Hill,  one  mile  to  the  north-west.  To  the  south  of 
the  hills  are  the  Hampstead  Ponds,  which  formed  the  source 
of  the  Fleet — that  famous  river,  which  Pope  immortalized  as — 

"  The  king  of  dykes,  than  whom  no  sluice  of  mud 
With  deeper  sable  biota  the  silver  flood." 

For  many  centuries,  however,  the  water  was  as  pure  as  its 
origin  betokened.  Passing  from  Hampstead,  it  went  by  Kentish 
Town,  Camden  Town,  and  the  old  chtirch  of  St.  Pancras, 
towards  Battle  Bridge,  past  Bagnigge  Wells  and  the  House  of 
Correction,  towards  the  valley  at  the  back  of  Mount  Pleasant, 
and  thence  to  the  bottom  of  Holbom.  Here  it  received  the 
waters  of  the  Old  Bourne,  which  afterwards  bequeathed  its 
name  to  the  thoroughfare,  rising  near  Middle  Row,  and  the 
sewer  of  Holbom  Hill  is  the  same  channel  to  this  day.  In 
1765  the  Fleet  was  finally  covered  over  and  buUt  upon;  but 
the  sparkling  source  that  gave  it  birth  is  still  unchanged  by 
time.  The  Serpentine  is  also  fed  by  the  springs  alwut  this  spot, 
which  makes  the  fact  more  remarkable,  that  Hampstead  itself 
is  lamentably  deficient  in  the  supply  of  water  which  it  distri- 
butes so  liberally  to  the  northern  suburbs.  We  believe,  how- 
ever, that  arrangements  are  now  in  progress  for  removing 
what  has  always  been  such  a  marvellous  defect  to  the  parish, 
and  such  a  serious  inconvenience  to  the  inhabitants. 


The  tavern  known  as  "Jack  Straw's  Castle"  was  .so 
designated  from  a  tradition — generally  considered  erroneous 
— that  this  was  one  of  the  retreats  of  the  insurgents  during  the 
rebellion  of  Wat  Tyler.  The  house  is  commodious,  and  has 
some  spacious  grounds  attached,  with  a  Post-office  adjacent. 
A  brisk  walk  across  the  Heath  westward  will  soon  bring  the 
pedestrian  to  "  The  SpaniarcTs"  an  excellent  hostel,  situated 
in  a  rather  romantic  position  among  the  woods,  and  com- 
manding some  delightful  views.  It  was  formerly  the  site  of  a 
gateway  leading  into  an  extensive  park,  the  property  of  the 
Bishops  of  London,  and  here,  in  a  less  pleasant  way  than  by 
the  charges  of  the  present  Boniface,  toll  was  exacted  from 
every  traveller  who  passed.  In  this  park,  known  as  HaiFring- 
hay,  was  once  a  magnificent  palace,  the  property  also  of  these 
great  church  dignitaries,  and  how  pleasantly  chosen  may  be 
inferred  from  a  description  given  of  the  suburbs  by  Fitzstephen, 
in  1180,  which  reads  somewhat  oddly  in  the  present  day.  The 
old  chronicler  says — we  have  of  course  modernised  the  spelling 
— "  There  are  cornfields,  pastures,  and  delightful  meadows, 
intermixed  with  pleasant  streams,  on  which  stand  many  a  mill 
whose  clack  is  so  grateful  to  the  ear ;  beyond  them  a  forest 
extends  itself,  beautified  by  woods  and  groves,  and  full  of  the 
layers  and  coverts  of  beasts  and  game,  stags,  bucks,  boars,  and 
wild  bulls."  That  this  bishop's  palace  was  also  a  castle  we 
learn  from  an  account  published  of  it  in  1593,  which  even  then 
alludes  to  its  antiquity  as  a  ruin.  The  following  is  the  passage : 
— "  The  hill  is  at  this  time  trenched  with  two  deep  ditches, 
now  oldc  and  overgrowne  with  bushes,  the  rubble  thereof,  as 
brick,  tile,  and  cornish  slate,  are  in  heaps  yet  to  be  seen,  which 
ruins  are  of  great  antiquity,  as  may  appear  by  the  oaks  at  this 
day  standing,  above  a  hundred  years  growth,  at  the  very 
foundation  of  the  building."  That  the  facility  afforded  for 
hunting  was  the  chief  reason  that  induced  the  prelates  here  to 
fix  their  residence  cannot  be  doubted,  when  it  is  remembered 
that  at  a  period  not  more  remote  than  the  reign  of  Queen 
Elizabeth  these  wooded  andulations  abounded  with  pheasants, 


partridges,  and  herons,  which  latter  bird  being  found  in  such 
abundance  proves  that  the  region  of  villas  by  which  London 
is  now  begirt,  "  like  some  swarth  Indian  with  his  belt  of  beads," 
was  tlien  scarcely  better  than  an  undrained  track  of  marsh 
land.  A  century  before,  the  hilly  range  of  Highgate  and 
Hampstead,  with  the  gentler  declivity  of  Hornsey  and  the 
valley  of  Tottenham  to  the  east,  were  famous  for  wild  boars, 
and  the  diversion  of  hunting  them  often  drew  the  citizens  to 
resorts  now  frequented  for  a  much  less  romantic  purpose,  so 
that  in  earlier  times  there  could  have  been  no  dearth  of  sport 
for  these  mitred  huntsmen.  The  form  of  the  moat,  seventy 
yards  square,  is  still  visible,  and  is  indicated  by  a  gushing 
spring,  which  now  serves  as  a  watering-place  for  cattle,  where 
the  aged  bushes  on  its  banks  may  yet  be  seen  drooping  into 
the  refreshing  stream.  In  the  wood  adjacent  to  this  castle  a 
hostile  meeting  took  place  between  the  Duke  of  Gloucester 
and  the  Earl  of  Warwick  in  1386,  and  it  was  here  that  the 
former  opposed  the  king  with  a  force  of  forty  thousand  men. 
Henry  VIII.  threatened  those  who  should  hunt  or  hawk 
within  these  precincts  "imprisonment  of  their  bodies,  and 
further  punishment  at  his  majesty's  will  and  pleasure,"  so  that, 
whilst  we  indulge  in  a  little  needful  rest  and  refreshment  at 
the  "  Spaniard's",  there  is  no  lack  of  matter  for  reflection, 
when  we  contemplate  the  changes  of  times  past  and  present 

Before  leaving  the  inn  which  bears  this  uncommon  appella- 
tion, we  may  mention  that  it  owes  its  name  to  the  circumstance 
of  a  Spaniard  being  its  first  landlord,  since  which  time  it  has 
been  considerably  improved,  and  the  gardens  laid  out  with 
taste  and  liberality.  Close  by  was,  about  a  century  since,  a 
curious  cottage,  called  "  New  Georgia,"  which  bore  on  it  an 
inscription  penned  after  the  following  quaint  fashion : — "  I, 
Robert  Caxton,  began  this  place  in  a  wild  wood,  stubbed  np 
the  wood,  digged  all  the  ponds,  cut  all  the  walks,  made  all  the 
gardens,  built  all  the  rooms  with  my  own  hands,  nobody  drove 
a  nail  here,  laid  a  brick  or  tile  here,  but  myself,  and  thank  God 
for  giving  me  such  strength,  being  sixty-four  years  of  age 

CAEN   WOOD.  15 

■w-hen  I  began  it."  The  owner  showed  his  visitors  several 
small  rooms  with  embellishments  of  his  own  execution,  and 
wherein  some  such  odd  diversions  were  resorted  to  as  the 
gentleman  being  put  into  the  pillory,  and  the  ladies  obliged  to 
kiss  him  under  penalties  not  decorous  to  enumerate.  The 
eccentricity  of  this  heai;^y  old  gentleman  was  further  developed 
in  1760,  by  causing  his  grounds,  which  were  most  romantically 
disposed,  to  be  interspersed  with  representations  of  various 
reptiles,  that  by  means  of  hidden  machinery  suddenly  made  an 
attack  upon  the  unsuspecting  lounger.  There  was  a  chair  so 
constructed  also,  with  a  perversion  of  ingenuity,  that  directly 
the  tired  stranger  became  seated  in  it  would  fling  around  him 
the  wooden  semblance  of  snakes,  spiders,  and  the  most  loath- 
some reptiles,  all  we  are  to  presume  made  likewise  out  of  jVIt. 
Caxton's  "  own  head." 

Caen  Wood,  the  residence  of  the  Earl  of  Mansfield,  is  the 
next  conspicuous  object  that  arrests  our  attention.  Once  the 
retreat  of  Venner,  the  fanatic,  and  his  followers,  it  was  at  an 
early  date  inhabited  by  the  Duke  of  Argyle.  The  mansion  is 
a  noble  structure,  though  without  much  pretension  to  archi- 
tectural magnificence,  and  the  spacious  park  is  composed  of 
graceful  undulations,  green  lawns,  sparkling  sheets  of  water, 
and  strips  of  umbrageous  woodland,  with  here  an  opening 
whence  a  picturesque  view  may  be  obtained,  and  there  a 
grove  of  impenetrable  thickness.  Though  now  the  very  image 
of  peaceful  seclusion,  it  was  in  1780  the  scene  of  one  of  those 
riotous  outbreaks  which  are,  happily,  of  such  rare  occurrence 
in  England,  though  apparently  epidemic  abroad.  The  "  No 
Popery"  cry,  fomented  by  Lord  George  Gordon,  incited  a 
desperate  gang  to  bum  down  the  elegant  mansion  of  Lord 
Mansfield  in  Bloomsbury  Square,  which  consumed  a  most 
valuable  collection  of  pictures  and  manuscripts ;  and  Lord 
and  Lady  Mansfield  were  with  diflBculty  preserved  from  their 
violence,  by  making  their  escape  through  a  back  door  a  few 
minutes  before  these  miscreants  broke  in  and  took  possession 
of  the  house.    The  military  was  sent  for,  but  arrived  too  late; 

16  nscHLEr. 

they  were  obliged,  however,  to  fire  on  the  mob  in  their  own 
defence,  and  six  men  and  a  woman  were  killed  and  several 
wonnded.  Not  contented  with  the  havoc  and  destruction  they 
had  already  caused,  the  infuriate  mob  went  in  two  divisions 
through  Highgate  and  Hampstead,  both  meeting  at  the 
"  Spaniard's,"  then  kept  by  one  Giles  Thomas.  With  singular 
presence  of  mind  he  persuaded  his  unruly  visitors  to  refresh 
themselves  amply,  throwing  not  only  his  house  and  cellarage 
open  to  them  free  of  charge,  but  causing  barrels  of  strong  ale 
to  be  rolled  from  the  cellars  of  Caen  Wood  house  to  the  road- 
side. During  the  time  thus  so  adroitly  gained  messengers 
were  despatched  for  the  soldiery,  who  arrived  just  in  time  to 
save  the  noble  structure,  which  the  multitude  intended  to 
destroy.  The  whole  of  these  exciting  incidents  have  been 
admirably  introduced  by  Dickens  into  his  story  of  "  Bamaby 
Rudge,"  and  tell  with  thrilling  effect  upon  the  reader. 

Should  time  permit,  it  is  worth  while  for  the  pedestrian  to 
stroll  hence  through  East  End  on  to  Finchky,  which  is  about 
three  miles  further,  and  pay  a  visit  to  the  old  church,  that 
claims  an  antiquity  coeval  with  the  fifteenth  century.  There 
are  some  fine  old  tombs  and  brasses  that  will  well  repay 
inspection.  Some  ancient  almshouses,  supported  by  an  endow- 
ment of  £300  a  year,  given  in  1491,  are  interesting  as  a  record 
of  the  benevolence  of  our  forefathers.  Finchley  Common, 
memorable  for  the  exploits  of  the  Dick  Turpins  and  Claude 
Du  Val's  of  former  days,  is  now  surrounded  by  the  neat  villas 
of  our  London  merchants,  but  the  tree  is  still  standing  that 
formed  the  rendezvous  of  the  highwaymen;  and  the  Black- 
smith's forge  is  on  the  same  site,  where  the  old  farrier  shod  the 
horse  of  one  of  these  minions  of  the  moon  the  WTong  way,  in 
order  to  enable  him  to  evade  pursuit,  by  leaving  a  reversed 
track  behind.  This  locality  will  also  remind  one  of  Hogarth's 
"  March  toFittchley"viheTein  he  has  so  humourously  delineated 
the  progress  of  the  Foot  Guards  to  their  place  of  rendezvous  on 
Finchley  Common,  whence  they  were  to  proceed  to  Scotland 
against  the  rebels  in  1745.    The  return  to  town  can  be  made 


either  by  way  of  Muswell  Hill,  Hornsey  Lane,  and  Islington, 
or  through  Highgate  and  Kentish  Town.  The  latter,  as  being 
the  nearest  as  well  as  most  interesting  route,  is  the  one  we 
have  preferred  to  indicate. 

The  salubrity  of  Highoate  is  attested  not  only  by  the  old 
records,  which  show  during  the  prevalence  of  the  Great 
Plague  of  London  that  not  one  death  from  that  fearful  disease 
occurred  in  this  locality,  but  also  by  the  number  of  hospitals 
and  asylums  that  have  been  here  erected,  and  the  numerous 
families  who  have  chosen  a  residence  in  this  elevated  region, 
for  the  sake  of  its  pure  and  bracing  atmosphere.  One  of  the 
most  curious  circumstances  connected  with  its  history  is 
attached  to  the  name  of  Sir  William  "Wallace.  When  that 
patriotic  hero  was  beheaded  on  Tower  Hill,  in  1305,  his 
remains  were  conveyed  to  the  lodge  of  Gilbert  Earl  of  Glou- 
cester, the  Bishop's  castle  before  alluded  to,  and  here  also 
Robeit  Bruce,  disguised  as  a  Carmelite,  remained  concealed 
until  treachery  betrayed  his  retreat  to  the  king.  Many  stirring 
scenes  were  here  enacted  during  the  "  troublous  times"  of 
Henry  IV.;  and  it  is,  besides,  the  locality  of  the  famous 
necromantic  conspiracy,  plotted  by  the  Duchess  of  Gloucester, 
Margaret  Jourdain,  and  their  conferates,  against  Henry  the 
Sixth.  On  Highgate  Hill  was  Baron  Thorpe  beheaded  by  the 
insurgents  in  1461;  and  in  Arundel  House  was  imprisoned 
the  unfortunate  Lady  Arabella  Stuart,  and  hence  she  escaped 
in  male  attire.  The  adventures  of  this  unhappy  lady,  who  by 
her  affinity  to  James  I.  and  Elizabeth,  was  placed  too  near 
the  throne  for  her  own  peaceful  desires,  form  one  of  the  most 
singular  episodes  in  history.  In  the  same  house  the  great  Lord 
Bacon  breathed  his  last,  leaving  only  the  immortality  of  a 
name.  Cromwell  House,  a  curious  structure  close  by,  was 
built  by  the  Protector  for  Ireton,  his  son-in-law ;  the  armorial 
bearings  of  the  family  are  still  to  be  seen  on  the  ceiling  of  the 
drawing-room.  In  Lauderdale  House  once  dwelt  Mistress 
Nell  G Wynne,  mother  of  the  first  Duke  of  St.  Albans;  and 
among  the  many  other  celebrated  personages  who  have  cither 


spent  the  greater  part  of  their  lives  or  ended  their  days  hercj 
may  be  enumerated  Sir  Eichard  Baker,  author  of  the  "  Chro- 
nicles," Andrew  Marvel,  the  Countess  of  Huntingdon,  Dr. 
Sacheverell,  Moreland,  Coleridge,  and  Charles  Lamb.  The 
high  gate  which  gave  its  name  to  the  parish  was  an  arch  with 
rooms  over  it,  and  was  removed  in  1769,  its  want  of  height 
obstructing  the  passage  of  laden  waggons.  The  north  road 
now  passes  through  the  hill  by  means  of  a  deep  cutting  and 
under  an  archway.  The  reason  for  establishing  the  old  gate 
is  thus  fully  communicated  by  Norden,  one  of  the  old  local 
topographers: — "The  Auncient  Highwaie  to  High  Bamet 
from  Portepole,  now  Gray's  Inn  Lane,  was  through  a  lane  on 
the  east  of  Pancras  Church  called  Longwich  Lane ;  from  thence 
leaving  Highgate  to  the  west,  it  passed  through  Tallingdone 
Lane,  and  so  to  Crouch  End,  and  thence  through  a  park 
called  Hornsey  Great  Park,  to  Muswell  Hill,  Colney  Hatch, 
Fryeme  Bamet,  and  so  to  Whetstone.  This  Auncient  High- 
waie was  refused  of  wayfarers  and  carriers  by  reason  of 
the  deepness  and  dirtie  passage  in  the  winter  season.  It 
was  agreed  between  the  Bishop  of  London  and  the  countrie 
that  a  new  way  should  be  laide  forthe  through  the  said 
Bishop's  possessions,  beginning  at  Highgate  Hill,  to  lead 
directly  to  Whetstone,  for  which  new  waie  travellers  yield  a 
certain  toll  imto  the  Bishop  of  London,  which  is  farmed  at 
£40  per  annum,  and  for  that  purpose  was  the  gate  erected  in 
1387  upon  the  hill,  that  through  the  same  all  travellers  should 
passe,  and  be  the  more  aptly  staide  for  the  said  toll."  At  the 
Gate  House  Inn  was  formerly  administered  the  celebrated 
Highgate  oath  on  the  horns,  which  strange  custom  is  said  to 
have  originated  from  the  fact  of  the  tavern  being  frequented  by 
graziers,  who,  to  exclude  strangers,  brought  an  ox  to  the  door, 
aad  allowed  none  to  enter  who  would  not  kiss  the  homs.  Some 
doggrel  rhymes  of  the  pariod  thus  allude  to  the  circumstance : — 

"  It's  a  custom  at  Highgate,  that  all  who  go  through 
Must  be  sworn  on  the  homs,  sir ;  and  so,  sir,  must  you  ; 
Bring  the  homs,  shut  the  door ;  lyw,  sir,  off  with  your  hat. 
And  when  you  again  come,  pray  don't  forget  that." 


Not  longer  back  than  sixty  years,  when  eighty  stages  stopped 
daily  at  the  Red  Lion  Inn — now  where  ai'e  they  ? — three 
out  of  every  five  passengers  were  regularly  sworn.  The 
landlord,  introducing  a  pair  of  horns  on  a  long  pole,  bade 
every  guest  be  uncovered,  and  then  gave  a  rigmarole  affir- 
mation of  what  every  one  might  and  might  not  do  with 
impunity,  such  as  not  to  eat  brown  bread  when  they  could 
get  white,  except  they  liked  it  better,  and  so  forth,  with 
other  whimsical  injunctions,  in  the  same  strain.  These  mum- 
meries of  a  past  age,  when  boisterous  memment  was  mis- 
taken for  happiness,  are  now  quite  extinct.  The  handsome 
gothic  church  of  St.  Jlichael's  was  completed  in  1832,  and 
forms  a  landmark  seen  for  miles  round ;  the  interior  is  exceed- 
ingly neat  and  commodious.  The  grammar  school,  which  was 
originally  an  hermitage,  was  founded  by  Sir  Roger  Cholmely 
in  1565,  who  left  some  estates  for  its  support.  The  school  at 
first  educated  only  forty  boys  ;  but  by  judicious  management, 
and  the  receipt  of  a  small  extra  sum  from  the  scholars,  tlie 
benefits  have  been  extended  to  nearly  double  the  number,  and 
the  income  has  increased  from  £10  to  nearly  £900  annually. 
The  original  Whittington's  Stone  has  been  long  since  removed, 
but  some  handsome  almshouses  mark  the  spot  where  he  heard 
the  peal  of  Bow  Bells  ringing  the  mystic  injunction  in  his  ear 
of  "Turn  again  Whittington,  thrice  Lord  Mayor  of  London." 
He  was  Lord  Mayor  during  the  three  reigns  of  Richard  II., 
Henry  IV.,  and  Henry  V.,  having  been  at  first  sheriff  in  1393. 
Before  leaving  Highgate  no  one  should  omit  a  visit  to  the 
Highgate  or  North  London  Cemetery,  consecrated  by  the 
Bishop  of  London  in  May,  1839.  The  grounds,  comprising  an 
area  of  about  twenty  acres,  form  a  portion  of  that  side  of 
Highgate  Hill  which  faces  the  metropolis.  They  are  entered 
from  a  lane  on  the  west  by  a  little  gothic  building.  To  the 
left  is  the  chapel,  and  broad  gravel  paths  wind  in  each 
direction,  through  flowery  partcn-es,  clumps  of  evergreens, 
and  picturesque  combinations  of  trees.  An  Egyptian  archway 
forms  the  entrance  to  the  catacombs,  where  a  fine  cypress-tree, 


in  the  central  compartment,  flings  a  congenial  shadow  over 
the  solid  masonry  beneath.  The  terrace  which  runs  at  the  foot 
of  the  church  commands  an  extensive  view  over  London  and 
the  adjacent  country. 

Again  resorting  to  omnibus  conveyance,  the  excursionist 
can  either  go  through  Holloway  and  Islington,  or  to  Camden 
Town,  as  his  desires  may  tend ;  but  he  must  not  forget,  if  he 
returns  through  Islington,  that  the  old  tavern  called  "The 
Queen  Elizabeth's  Head"  has  some  noticeable  antique  furniture 
and  apartments,  with  the  real  Whittington  Stone,  it  is  said, 
for  its  threshold — ^that  Canonbury  has  an  old  Manor  House, 
formerly  belonging  to  the  Priory  of  St.  Bartholomew  at  Smith- 
field — and  that  at  the  old  tavern  of  "  The  Red  Lion,"  in  St. 
John  Street  Road,  the  notorious  Thomas  Paine  wrote  some  of 
the  works  that  gave  rise  to  such  endlesss  law  proceedings  with 
Carlile  and  others. 

A  day  may  well  be  devoted  to  this  excursion,  but,  omitting 
Finchley,  the  whole  can  be  comfortably  explored  with  the  aid 
of  omnibii  in  the  course  of  a  summer's  afternoon. 



Fbom  Euston  Square  to  Harrow,  by  the  London  and  Bir- 
mingham Railway,  is  a  rapid  railroad  transit  of  nine  and  a 
half  miles;  and,  as  few  would  prefer  to  this  speedy  travelling 
the  slower  progress  along  the  Harrow  road,  by  Paddington 
and  Westboume  Green,  we  shall  assume  that  this  is  the  route 
chosen.  Possessed,  therefore,  of  a  ticket  to  the  Harrow  station, 
we  can  leisurely  glance  at  the  intervening  objects  we  encounter 
on  our  way,  as  we  effectually  shorten,  by  the  aid  of  steam,  the 
time  occupied  in  our  journey.  Passing  through  the  Primrose 
Hill  Tunnel,  which  is  1,120  yards  in  length,  and  the  excavation 
of  which  occupied  a  period  of  three  years,  we  are  next  carried 
under  the  Edgeware  Road,  and  beneath  a  number  of  bridges, 
chiefly  used  for  connecting  private  property  severed  by  the 
line.  Three  miles  from  the  Primrose-Hill  Tunnel  we  come  to 
the  Kensal  Green  Tunnel,  960  feet  in  length,  the  celebrated 
cemetery  being  on  the  other  side,  and  forming  of  itself  a  place 
worthy  of  pilgrimage,  from  the  number  of  eminent  individuals 
who  are  entombed  within  its  limits ;  branches  of  royalty  itself, 
in  the  persons  of  the  Duke  of  Sussex  and  the  Princess  Sophia, 
having,  in  1843  and  1848,  been  added  to  the  other  illustrious 
names.  At  a  small  cottage  adjacent,  demolished  in  1837, 
Goldsmith  wrote  the  "  Deserted  Village"  and  the  "  Vicar  of 
Wakefield."  Some  modem  villas  have  lately  been  built 
npon  the  site.  In  the  Abbey  Field,  at  Kilbum,  stood  a 
Priory,  once  famous  for  a  medicinal  spring.    At  Willesden 

22  HARROW. 

is  a  plain  Saxon  church,  enjoying  the  traditionary  reputation 
of  being  the  burial  place  of  the  novel-renowned  Jack 
Sheppai'd;  and  the  cage,  where  he  was  once  in  "  durance 
vile,"  is  still  to  be  seen.  A  richly  pastoral  country  is  next 
traversed,  and  crossing  over  the  Brent  by  a  viaduct,  and 
winding  round  the  hill,  where  the  spire  of  the  village  church 
is  seen  rising  above  the  trees,  we  alight  at  our  destination. 

The  Harrow  Station  is  rather  more  than  a  mile  from  Har- 
row, lying  in  the  valley  below.  Crossing  the  green  meadows 
that  form  our  pathway  until  we  reach  the  foot  of  the  hill, 
where  the  slope  becomes  much  steeper,  the  view  from  the 
summit  will  be  found  to  deserve  all  the  encomiums  that  have 
been  so  lavishly  bestowed  upon  it.  The  hill,  rising  almost 
isolated  from  an  extensive  plain,  with  the  church  and  school 
on  one  side,  and  the  old  churchyard  sloping  on  the  other, 
forms  in  itself  a  combination  of  objects  inexpressibly  attractive 
and  picturesque;  but  when  the  eye  ranges  over  the  vast 
expanse,  and  the  landscape  is  lit  up  by  the  gorgeous  sunset  of 
a  summer's  eve,  the  prospect  becomes  positively  fascinating. 
On  the  north  it  is  limited  by  the  woody  country  round  Edge- 
ware  and  Whitchurch,  but  from  the  west  there  is  included 
within  the  scope  of  vision  the  most  fertile  portions  of  Buckings 
hamshire  and  Berkshire,  with  more  to  the  south  the  towers  of 
Windsor  Castle;  thence  we  catch  a  glimpse  of  Knockholt 
Beeches,  on  the  very  verge  of  Sussex,  and  the  sweeping 
undulation  of  the  Sun-ey  Hills,  whilst,  about  ten  miles  away, 
half  shrouded  in  its  canopy  of  smoke,  looms  the  great  metro- 
polis, vnth.  the  rotundity  of  St.  Paul's  dome  gleaming  in  the 
sunlight  like  a  ball  of  golden  fire. 

The  church  is  less  remarkable  in  its  exterior  than  a  distant 
view  would  induce  us  to  suppose.  It  was  founded  by  Arch- 
bishop Lanfranc,  who  held  the  manor  of  Harrow  in  the  warlike 
days  of  William  the  Conqueror.  A  few  fragments  of  the  Nor- 
man architect  are  to  be  descried  in  the  pillars  of  the  western 
porch,  but  time  and  the  race  of  churchwardens — scarcely  less 
ioimical  to  antiquity — have  nearly  obliterated  eveiy  vestige 

HABKOW.  23 

of  the  old  edifice  of  eight  centuries  back.  The  retort  of 
Charles  11.,  who  called  this  the  only  manifestation  of  "the 
Chui'ch  visible,"  is  borne  out  by  its  spire  and  tower  being 
conspicuous  for  many  miles  round.  The  interior  contains 
some  fine  old  tombs  and  monumental  brasses,  with  an  oak- 
carved  roof,  as  ancient  as  the  fourteenth  century,  ornamented 
with  some  grotesque  evidences  of  the  carver's  skill.  A  monu- 
ment to  Dr.  Drury,  by  Westmacott,  on  the  north  side  of  the 
nave,  represents  the  schoolmaster  seated,  with  two  of  his 
pupils  standing  before  him — the  likenesses  identifying  them 
with  Sir  Eobert  Peel  and  Lord  Byron.  Sir  Samuel  Garth,  the 
poetic  physician,  who  compounded  drugs  with  doggrel,  and 
mixed  up  medicine  with  metaphors,  till  it  was  difiScult  to  say 
which  was  the  worst  to  swallow,  is  also  here  interred.  Besides 
a  marble  tablet,  with  an  inscription  by  Dr.  Parr,  there  is  a 
brass  monument  in  the  nave,  over  the  body  of  the  founder  of 
Harrow  School,  whose  liberahty  is  commemorated  in  the 
following  inscription: — "  Here  lyeth  buried  the  bodye  of  John 
Lyons,  late  of  Preston,  in  this  Parish,  Yeoman,  deceased  the 
11th  day  of  October,  in  the  year  of  our  Lord  1592,  who  hath 
founded  a  fi'ee  grammar  school  in  the  parish  to  have  continu- 
ance for  ever,  and  for  maintenance  thereof  and  for  releyffe  of 
the  poore  and  of  some  poore  scholars  in  the  Universityes, 
repairing  of  highwayes,  and  other  good  and  charitable  uses, 
hath  made  conveyance  of  lands  of  good  value  to  a  coi"poration 
granted  for  that  purpose.  Prayers  be  to  the  Author  of  all 
Goodness,  who  makes  us  myndfid  to  follow  his  good  example." 
Having  thus  seen  the  last  resting-place  of  the  founder,  we  may 
naturally  turn  to  the  school  itself,  a  plain  red  brick  building, 
in  the  Tudor  style,  which,  though  it  may  be  considered  as  one 
of  the  most  renowned  of  our  public  institutions  for  educational 
purposes,  is  singularly  deficient  in  exterior  attractions.  John 
Lyon  established  it  in  1585.  All  resident  householders  in  the 
parish  of  Harrow  have  the  inalienable  right  of  sending  their 
6ons  to  this  grammar-school  to  receive  instruction,  but  other 
parts  of  the  country  are  the  main  source  of  the  pupils,  who 

24  HARROW. 

chiefly  board  with  the  masters.  The  worthy  founder  cveB 
specified  ia  his  instractions  what  the  amusements  of  the 
scholars  were  to  be — such  as  "  driving  a  top,  tossing  a  hand- 
ball, running  and  shooting."  He  required  parents  to  furnish 
their  children  with  bowstrings  and  shafts,  to  pursue  the  exer- 
cise— much  in  the  same  way  as  academies  now. require  the 
parental  offering  of  the  six  towels  and  silver  spoon,  which 
seldom  come  back  with  the  boarders — and  it  was  customary, 
till  a  very  recent  period,  for  the  scholars  to  shoot  for  a  silver 
arrow  at  an  annual  display  of  archery.  The  pupils  being, 
however,  now  expected  to  be  "men  of  mark"  in  a  different 
sense,  trials  of  skill  by  public  speech  have  been  wisely  sub- 
stituted. The  number  of  scholars  is  generally  about  250,  and 
among  the  most  eminent  of  those  who  have  been  here  educated 
may  be  mentioned  the  names  of  Sir  William  Jones,  Dr.  Parr, 
(the  most  profound  of  our  Greek  professors),  Sheridan,  Bruce 
(the  Abyssinian  traveller),  Sir  Robert  Peel,  and  Lord  Byron, 
who  has,  perhaps,  more  largely  than  any  of  the  rest  contributed 
to  the  interest  attached  to  the  locality.  He  is  still  remembered 
by  some  of  the  old  village  sexagenarians  as  a  wild,  racketty 
and  romantic  boy,  ready  for  any  fight,  frolic,  or  diversion  that 
might  present  an  opportunity  for  getting  out  of  bounds.  He 
himself  tells  us,  in  one  of  the  letters  given  in  Moore's  life,  of 
the  regard  he  had  for  a  particular  spot  in  the  churchyard, 
"near  a  footpath  on  the  brow  of  the  hill  looking  towards 
Windsor,  and  a  tomb  under  a  large  tree  (bearing  the  name  of 
Peachey  or  Peachie),  where  I  used  to  sit  for  hours  and  hours 
when  a  boy."  He  echoed  this  sentiment  afterwards  in  verse, 
as  follows: — 

"  Again  I  behold  where  for  hours  I  hare  pondered. 
As  reclining  at  eve  on  yon  tombstone  I  lay, 
Or  round  the  steep  brow  of  the  churchyard  I  wandered, 
To  catch  the  last  gleam  of  the  sun's  setting  ray." 

As  besides  there  can  be  no  place  better  fitted  for  meditation 
than  a  country  churchyard,  it  may  be  some  satisfaction  to 
choose  the  same  spot  with  the  poet,  and  thence  survey  the 

HA5IWEIX.  25 

very  panorama  that  so  often  delighted  him  who,  self-expatriated 
while  he  lived,  Avas  destined  to  be,  when  dead,  excluded  from 
that  niche  in  Poet's  Comer  which  his  own  genius  and  English 
justice  had  a  right  to  demand. 

Taking  the  footpath  to  Wembly,  which  leads  from  the  end 
of  Harrow  Church  through  a  delightfully  rural  district,  the 
pedestrian  can  skirt  the  large  domain  of  Wembly  Park,  and 
rejoin  the  railway,  homeward  bound,  at  the  Willesden  Station, 
But,  if  he  should  not  be  pressed  for  time,  nor  indisposed  by 
fatigue,  we  by  all  means  suggest  an  extension  of  his  walk 
through  Sudbury  and  Greenford  to  the  Hanwell  Station  on 
the  Great  Western  Railway.  It  is  about  five  miles  distant,  but 
the  road  leads  through  the  most  secluded  and  beautiful  por- 
tions of  what  is  called  the  Vale  of  Middlesex.  Greenford 
Church  is  small,  but  very  ancient,  and  has  some  brasses  and 
tombs  to  repay  a  passing  inspection.  In  that  part  of  the  river 
Brent  which  meanders  between  Greenford  and  Perivale, 
sanguine  piscators  have  stoutly  maintained  the  excellence  of 
the  pike  and  trout  to  be  found  therein,  and  the  disciples  of 
Izaak  Walton  are  frequently  encountered,  with  rod  and  line, 
along  its  margin.  The  WhamclifFe  \-iaduct,  a  massive  and 
elegant  structure  raised  upon  eight  arches,  and  extending  over 
a  length  of  three  hundred  yards,  is  a  conspicuous  feature  of 
the  Great  Western  Railway  as  we  approach  Hanwell,  which 
has  antiquity  enough  to  figure  in  tlie  early  records  as  one  of 
the  places  given  by  King  Edgar  to  Westminster  Abbey.  The 
new  gothic  church,  built,  at  a  cost  of  £4,000,  in  1841,  on  the 
site  of  the  old  one,  has  been  much  and  deservedly  admired, 
and  blends  harmoniously  with  the  surrounding  scenery  as  the 
spectator  comes  in  view  of  it  from  the  Uxbridge  Road.  In  the 
churchyard  adjoining  lies  interred  the  eccentric  Jonas  Han- 
way,  who  has  been  generally  accredited  as  the  first  who 
introduced  the  umbrella  into  this  country,  and  who,  setting 
the  example  by  always  carrying  one  himself,  encountered 
such  opposition  among  the  prejudiced  as  to  cause  it  to  be 
denounced  as  "  a  profane  attempt  to  ward  off  from  man  the 


rain  that  fell  from  heaven."  His  biographer,  Pugh,  says  thai 
"  after  carrying  one  for  nearly  thirty  years  he  saw  them  come 
into  general  use,"  so  that,  as  Jonas  died  in  the  year  1786,  this 
statement  enables  us  to  fix  his  first  appearance  with  an 
umbrella  about  the  year  1756.  But  the  greatest  object  of 
interest  in  Hanwell  is  unquestionably  the  County  Lunatic 
Asylum,  which  now  contains  upwards  of  1,400  inmates.  The 
grounds  are  laid  out  with  much  taste,  and  with  spacious 
apartments,  indulgent  directors,  kind  attendants,  and  an  im- 
proved treatment,  those  who  recover  from  these  melancholy 
attacks  of  mental  aberration  are  much  more  numerous  than 
formerly.  One  of  the  most  striking  changes  in  the  manage- 
ment has  been  that  arising  from  the  complete  abolishment  of 
personal  restraint.  In  June  1839,  when  Dr.  Conolly  was 
appointed  superintendent  of  the  Hanwell  Asylum,  40  patients, 
out  of  the  800  it  then  contained,  were  almost  constantly 
strapped  down.  In  1844  he  added  in  his  report  that,  "  by  the 
abolition  of  restraint  the  general  management  of  the  insane 
has  been  freed  from  many  difficulties,  and  their  recovery  in 
various  degrees  greatly  promoted."  Since  this  period  the  system 
so  successfully  adopted  here  has  been  pursued  with  the  same 
advantages  elsewhere.  The  medical  assistants  are  all  gentle- 
men of  the  highest  standing  in  the  profession,  and  Dr. 
Conolly  has  two  able  coadjutors  in  Dr.  Hitchman  and  Mr. 
Aulsebrook.  The  Charity  School,  founded  in  1484,  has  an 
endowment  of  £100  per  annum.  Either  by  road  or  rail  the 
excursionist  will  hence  return  through  Ealing  and  Acton. 
Ealing  Church  was  built  in  1739,  but  besides  a  tomb  to  Old- 
mixon,  a  dramatist  of  little  note,  there  is  nothing  wortliy  of 
mention.  It  is  a  plain  brick  structure,  with  a  square  tower  and 
turret.  Henry  Fielding,  the  novelist  and  magistrate,  had  a 
residence  in  this  village,  which  has  long  been  a  favourite  spot 
for  academies.  Castlebar  was  the  seat  of  the  Duke  of  Kent. 
Acton,  though  now  connected  with  the  metropolis  by  the  long 
line  of  houses  by  Notting  Hill  and  Bayswater,  was  once  a 
secluded  hamlet,  centred  in  a  thick  forest  of  oaks,  and  hence 

ACTON.  27 

called  Oak  Town,  of  which  its  present  name  is  a  corruption. 
Towards  the  southern  part  of  the  parish  is  the  fine  castellated 
mansion,  surrounded  by  its  massive  and  ancient  elms,  known 
as  Berrymead  Priory.  It  was  formerly  tenanted  by  Sir 
Edward  Bulwer  Lytton,  but  has  lately  reverted,  after  cen- 
turies of  secular  tenancy,  to  its  original  purpose  as  a  monastic 
house,  having  been  purchased  about  six  years  since  by  the 
sisterhood  of  Le  Sucre  Cceur  de  Jesus,  to  form  a  branch 
convent  from  their  principal  establishment  near  the  Chamber 
of  Deputies  at  Paris.  The  Convent  of  Berrymead  contains 
nearly  50  nuns,  who — to  their  praise  and  unbigoted  liberality 
be  it  spoken — support  out  of  their  funds  a  free  day  school, 
which  is  chiefly  attended  by  Protestant  children.  The  Earls 
of  Essex  and  Warwick  made  Acton  their  head-quarters  prior 
to  the  conflict — which  now  carries  an  odd  sound  with  it — of 
the  Battle  of  Brentford.  Shepherd's  Bush,  a  pretty  suburban 
district,  leads  to  Brook  Green,  on  the  southern  extremity  of 
which  is  a  Catholic  School  and  Chapel  of  some  celebrity, 
called  "  The  Ark."  In  June,  1843,  an  extensive  Catholic 
establishment  was  removed  here  from  some  former  incon- 
venient premises  in  King  Street,  Hammersmith,  under  the 
title  of  the  '•  Convent  of  the  Good  Shephei"d."  Adjoining  the 
convent  is  an  "  Asylum  for  Penitent  Women,"  an  excellent 
institution,  under  the  personal  superintendence  of  the  religious 
ladies  who  are  recognised  as  "  the  Daughters  of  our  Lady  of 
Charity  of  the  Good  Shepherd."  Within  the  last  few  years 
no  less  than  forty  foundations  have  been  formed  from  the 
parent  house  of  this  religious  order,  branches  of  which  are  to 
be  met  with  in  the  most  extreme  parts  of  the  earth.  One  of 
these  has  been  established  even  at  Algiers,  thus  bringing  the 
African  region  within  the  scope  of  its  mission,  and  there  are 
two  in  North  America.  The  order,  founded  in  1651,  at  Caen 
in  Normandy,  comprehends  nearly  300  religious  sisters,  who 
consecrate  their  life  and  devote  their  energies  to  the  many 
charitable  objects  which  constitute  the  basis  of  the  institution. 
Not  the  least  commendable  among  these  is  the  reception 


afforded  by  them  to  that  unfortunate  class  who  are  too  often 
driven  by  obloquy  and  despair  to  seek  a  refuge  from  the 
contempt  of  society  in  the  grave.  The  Magdalens,  who  are 
thus  sheltered  from  an  outcast  existence,  live  under  regulations 
approved  by  the  church,  and  under  the  guidance  of  these 
charitable  sisters.  They  have  houses  of  preservation,  and 
schools  for  orphans,  who  are  subsequently  adopted  by  the 
foundation.  Not  having  any  other  funds  than  those  derived 
from  voluntary  contributions  and  the  work  of  the  penitents, 
the  relief  afforded  is  necessarily  restricted  in  amount.  The 
"  Waste  Land  Almshouses"  are  for  aged  inhabitants  of  the 
parish,  chiefly  supported  by  the  proceeds  arising  from  the  sale 
of  the  waste  lands.  Another  half-hour  and  we  can  get  to 
Oxford  Street,  and  ponder  over  the  panoramic  progress  we 
have  made  round  the  environs,  as  we  discuss  the  welcome 
adjunct  to  our  rambles  in  a  late  repast  of  adequate  sub- 



Taking  the  steamboat  to  Chelsea — a  mode  of  conveyance 
that  would  marvellously  have  perplexed  its  visitors  in  the  last 
century,  when  the  watermen  at  the  Arundel  Stairs  plied 
"sculls  to  Ranelagh,"  and  thought  themselves  scantily  paid 
by  a  fare  of  as  many  shillings  as  we  now  give  pence — we  dis- 
embark at  the  Cadogan  Pier,  and  come  at  once  under  the 
shade  of  the  old  trees  that  line  the  ancient  parade  called 
Cheyne  "Walk.  It  is  not  our  purpose  to  enter  into  any 
elaborate  dissertation  concerning  the  antiquities  of  a  place  so 
well  kno^^•n,  but  we  cannot  resist  reminding  the  rambler  of  a 
few  particulars  that  may  interest  him  as  he  passes  the  vene- 
rable church.  It  is  not  more  than  two  hundred  years  old, 
though  some  remains  of  the  structure  built  on  the  same  site, 
in  the  reign  of  Edward  II.,  are  still  apparent.  The  monument 
of  Sir  Hans  Sloane  is  the  first  seen  at  the  south-east  comer, 
and  records  the  death  of  that  eminent  physician  and  natu- 
ralist, in  1753,  at  the  age  of  92.  Another  more  antique  is 
that  to  Dr.  Edmund  Chamberlayne,  who  died  in  1 703,  ^vith 
an  inscription  stating,  that  along  with  the  body  several  of  the 
Doctor's  unpublished  works  are  buried,  having  been  sealed 
up  and  thus  disposed  of,  to  render  them  more  likely  to  go 
down  to  posterity.  Several  attempts  have  been  made  to  obtain 
these,  but  all  have  proved  fruitless.  On  the  south  wall,  near 
the  east  end,  and  in  an  arched  recess,  is  Sir  Thomas  More's 


tomb,  plainly  decorated  with  the  crest  and  armorial  bearings 
of  the  deceased,  beneath  which  is  a  long  inscription  on  a  black 
marble  slab.  He  was  executed  on  the  6th  of  July,  1535. 
Beaufort  Row  stands  upon  the  site  of  More's  mansion,  where 
Erasmus  and  Holbein,  the  famous  painter,  were  his  frequent 
guests.  Turning  up  the  lane  by  Cremorne  Gardens,  now 
metamorphosed  into  the  most  popular  place  of  public  amuse- 
ment near  London,  we  pass  onward  through  a  region  chiefly 
cultivated  by  market  gardeners  till  we  come  to  the  Fulham 
Road,  leading  through  Walham  Green.  The  West  London 
Cemetery,  consecrated  in  1840,  extends  from  the  Fulham  Road 
to  Sir  John  Scott  Lillie's  ground.  The  cemetery  is  open  for 
public  inspection,  free  of  charge,  from  seven  to  sunset  daily, 
except  Sundays,  when  it  is  closed  till  noon.  Opposite  is  the 
Normal  School,  surrounded  by  a  brick  wall,  and  not  far  distant 
is  the  palace  of  the  Bishop  of  London,  a  stately  mansion,  girded 
by  a  moat,  and  environed  by  gardens  filled  with  the  rarest  and 
most  choice  exotics.  A  road  here  leads  to  Hammersmith 
Bridge,  opened  in  1827,  and  the  glance  at  the  river,  with  this 
light  and  elegant  structure  spanning  its  surface,  is  very 
pleasing.  The  Suspension  Bridge  is  20  feet  wide  and  688  feet 
long,  and  cost  £80,000.  Bi'andenburgh  House,  where  Queen 
Caroline,  the  dishonored  consort  of  George  IV.,  fixed  her 
residence,  is  now  pulled  down.  Continuing  our  way,  along 
the  banks  of  the  river,  past  the  osier  beds,  we  enter  Chiswick, 
and  make  our  way  at  once  to  the  church,  which  has  a  fine 
old  tower  and  some  interesting  monuments.  From  an  inscrip- 
tion, affixed  to  the  western  wall  on  a  tablet,  we  learn  that  the 
tower  was  founded  by  one  William  Bordall,  the  ^-icar,  who 
died  in  1435,  and  this  is  believed  to  be  the  period  of  the 
erection  of  the  whole  fabric.  On  the  south  side  of  the  chancel 
is  the  tomb  of  Sir  Thomas  Chaloner,  who  discovered  the  first 
alum  mines  worked  in  England.  He  was  a  soldier  too,  and 
did  no  little  service  to  the  conntrj^  ere  he  finally  expired  in 
1516.  Near  unto  him  are  the  remains  of  Charles  Holland,  the 
tragedian.    Here  lies  Hogarth ,  who  spent  the  last  days  of  his 


life  in  the  neighbourhood,  and  who  had  upon  his  decease  an 
epitaph  from  Garrick,  which  is,  perhaps,  the  best  and  happiest 
efFort  of  that  actor-author's  pen.  Being  the  inscription,  and 
still  sufficiently  legible,  quotation  is  needless.  Loutherbourg, 
the  artist,  the  Duchesses  of  Cleveland,  and  Somerset,  and  a 
few  others  who  made  some  stir  in  the  world,  after  their  various 
fashions,  are  also  buried  within  the  churchyard.  A  narrow 
path  between  two  brick  walls,  on  the  opposite  side  of  the 
church,  will  lead  to  Chiswick  House,  one  of  the  seats  of  the 
Duke  of  Devonshire.  Besides  possessing  all  the  attractions 
of  an  elegant  mansion,  surrounded  by  beautiful  grounds, 
originally  laid  out  by  Kent,  the  celebrated  landscape  gardener, 
it  is  memorable  as  having  been  the  place  where  Charles  James 
Fox  died,  in  1806,  and  where  Canning  also  breathed  his  last, 
twenty-one  years  afterwards.  There  is  an  obelisk  and  a 
temple,  adorned  with  some  iine  statues,  as  well  as  a  lofty  gate 
of  ratiier  imposing  proportions.  TlieFetes  of  ihe  Horticultural 
Society  dra^v  numbers  of  visitors  to  the  spot  every  year. 
Just  beyond  the  boundary  of  the  Devonshire  Estate  is  the 
little  straggling  parish  of  Strand-on-the- Green,  where  Joe 
Miller,  to  whom  has  been  affiliated  all  the  jokes,  good,  bad, 
and  indifferent  that  have  shaken  the  sides  of  our  ancestors 
for  a  century,  is  reputed  to  have  lived  and  died,  if  he  ever 
had  any  existence  at  all,  which  some  are  now  disposed  to 
deny.  Kew  Bridge,  replacing  an  old  wooden  one  taken 
down  in  1789,  is  a  neat  stone  structure,  and  forms  a  con- 
venient communication  with  all  parts  of  Surrey.  Not  far 
distant  is  Heathfield  House,  a  dilapidated  structure,  once 
the  mansion  of  Lord  Lovat,  who  was  executed  on  Tower 
Hill  in  1746,  on  a  charge  of  high  treason.  We  now  enter 
Brentford,  the  older  part  of  the  town  being  the  well-remem- 
bered source  of  George  the  Second's  admiration,  who  is  said 
to  have  exclaimed,  in  a  tone  of  enthusiasm,  "  I  like  to  ride 
through  Brentford,  it  isli  so  much  like  Hanoverish."  Recent 
improvements  have  somewhat  relieved  the  town  from  this 
opprobrium.    The  immense  chimney  of  the  Grand  Junction 


Water  Works  is  the  first  object  that  catches  the  eye.  It  ia 
nearly  150  feet  high,  and  is  ascended  by  120  circular  iron 
steps.  The  engines  propel  30,000  gallons  of  water  every 
minute  to  the  Paddington  main  to  supply  the  metropolis. 
More  in  the  town,  and  nearly  opposite  the  gas-works,  is  Sir 
Felix  Booth's  famous  distillery,  said  to  be  the  largest  in  the 
world :  £420,000  is  annually  returned  to  Government  for  duty 
alone,  and  500  oxen  are  fattened  on  the  grains.  There  are 
some  large  establishments  here  for  various  purposes,  particu- 
larly Hazard's  brewery  and  Rowe's  soap  manufactory.  Osterly 
House,  originally  erected  by  Sir  Thomas  Gresham  in  the  reign 
of  Elizabeth,  was  rebuilt  in  1760,  and  is  now  the  residence  of 
the  Earl  of  Jersey.  There  are  some  magnificent  rooms  in  the 
interior.  Crossing  Brentford  Bridge,  a  narrow  turning  to  the 
left  will  conduct  us  to  Sion  Park,  where  is  a  spacious  though 
plain  mansion,  occupied  by  the  Duke  of  Northumberland.  In 
1440  there  was  a  convent  on  the  site,  which  is  said  to  have 
had  a  subaqueous  tunnel  under  the  river,  terminating  at 
Kew;  and  scandalously  alleged  to  have  enabled  the  monks, 
on  the  other  side,  to  pay  sly  visits  to  the  fair  sisters  of  St. 
Bridget.  After  the  manor  had  been  granted  in  1604  to  the 
Earl  of  Northumberland,  tlie  mansion  afforded  a  tcmporaiy 
shelter  to  the  children  of  Charles  I.,  and  here  Queen  Anne 
resided  before  she  ascended  the  throne.  At  the  southern 
extremity  of  Sion  Park  we  pass  through  a  small  wicket  into 
the  pretty  village  of  Isleworth,  where  the  excursionist,  if  he 
feel  so  disposed,  can  cross  the  Thames  by  ferry  for  a  penny, 
and  proceed  to  Richmond  by  the  banks  of  the  river.  (See 

Isleworth  Church  is  ancient,  with  a  picturesque  tapestry  of 
ivy  about  the  tower.  An  extensive  tract  of  highly  cultivated 
market-ground  lies  about  here,  and  hence  the  metropolis 
derives  an  immense  vegetable  supply.  A  road  through 
Smallbury  Green  conducts  us  to  Hounshw,  a  town  which  has 
almost  relapsed  into  insignificance  since  the  opening  of  the 
Great  Western  Railway.    The  inns  are  shorn  of  all  their 


former  glory,  and  it  has  been  calculated  that  1,800  horses 
have  been  taken  off  the  road  from  this  place  alone.  In  the 
High  Street  is  Trinity  Church,  built  in  the  Italian  style. 
Hounslow  Heath,  the  terror  of  travellers  fifty  years  ago,  is 
now  harmlessly  devoted  to  the  dwellings  of  peaceful  house- 
holders. The  powder  mills  of  Curtis  and  Harvey  are  to  the 
south  of  the  town,  in  the  midst  of  a  copse  of  fir  trees.  There 
are  ban*acks  for  cavalry,  that  are  wont  to  exercise  on  the 
open  grounds  adjacent,  Sunbury,  an  agreeable  village  on  the 
banks  of  the  Thames,  is  about  three  miles  from  the  powder 

Should  opportunity  oifer,  we  can  specially  commend  a  walk 
of  four  miles  from  Hounslow  to  Harlington,  a  little  village  by 
Cranford  Bridge,  where  there  is  an  old  church  with  a  fine 
Norman  porch.  In  the  churchyard  is  a  venerable  yew  tree, 
said  to  have  been  growing  in  the  year  1729,  with  a  trunk  even 
then  measuring  twenty  feet  in  circumference.  It  was  sixty 
feet  high,  and  according  to  a  local  poet,  one  John  Saxy — ^who 
perpetuated  its  fame  in  verse — could  have  sheltered  beneath 
its  branches  a  troop  of  horse -guards.  Viscount  Bolingbroke 
was  very  partial  to  this  spot,  and  D'Oyley  House,  where  he 
resided,  has  still  a  wing  remaining,  to  attest  the  stability  of  the 
Viscount's  mansion.  We  are  now  three  miles  from  the  Southall 
Station,  and  can  proceed  thither  by  Cranford  Park,  where  the 
late  Countess  of  Berkeley  lived  and  died,  and  so  return  by  the 
Great  "Western  Railway  to  town.  Cranford  and  West  Drayton 
are  not  worth  extending  the  walk  in  a  more  northerly  direc- 
tion, and  if  the  excursionist  goes  from  Harlington  round  by 
Norwood,  a  short  mUe  and  a  half  from  the  Southall  Station, 
he  will  be  fully  recompensed  by  the  seclusion  of  this  primitive- 
looking  village,  which  contains  a  church  built  five  centuries 
ago,  and  noticeable  for  its  wooden  belfry  and  tiled  roof.  The 
route  home,  by  the  Great  "Western  Railway,  has  been  already 
indicated  in  our  previous  excursion. 

Should  the  Fulham  Road  have  been  approached  throngh 
Knightsbridge,  instead  of  from  Chelsea,  it  should  not  be  for- 


gotten,  as  we  pass  Sloane  Street,  that  Han's  Place,  close  .by,  is 
somewhat  remarkable  for  the  number  of  eminent  authoresses 
who  have  there  resided,  amongst  whom  have  been  Lady  Caro- 
line Lamb,  Lady  Bulwer,  Miss  Mitford,  Miss  Emma  Roberts, 
and  Letitia  Landon,the  "  L.  E.  L."  of  poetic  memory.  Bromp- 
ton  has  long  been  the  favorite  abiding-place  of  actors  and 
authors.  At  Brompton  Square  (No.  22),  died  George  Colman 
"  the  younger,"  in  October  1836,  aged  74.  A  little  beyond  the 
square  is  Brompton  New  Church,  in  which  John  Reeve,  the 
Adelphi  Momus,  was  consigned  to  his  last  home.  His  tomb  is 
to  the  back  of  the  church,  on  the  left,  and  clase  to  the  pathway. 
By  the  "  Admiral  Keppel,"  in  the  Fulham  Road,  is  a  row  of 
houses  called  AmeUa  Place,  in  the  last  of  which  Curran  died, 
in  1817.  The  tavern  called  the  "  Goat-in-Boots"  has  a  sign 
touched  up,  if  not  painted,  by  George  Morland,  the  eccentric 
but  clever  artist.  The  odd  appellation  of  the  inn  doubtless 
arose  from  the  Dutch  legend,  "  Mercurius  is  der  Goden  Boode" 
(Mercury  is  the  Messenger  of  the  Gods),  which  has  been 
twisted  into  an  English  shape  as  we  at  present  behold  it. 



Our  next  excursion  is  in  a  northerly  direction,  and  may  be 
comfortably  accomplished  in  a  day,  Avith  the  aid  of  omnibuses 
and  short  stages,  interspersed  with  a  little  pedestrianism. 
Taking  a  conveyance  from  either  the  Bank  or  Bishopsgate 
Street  to  Stoke  Newington,  which  is  three  miles  from  Shore- 
ditch,  we  may  first  alight  to  look  at  the  church,  an  interesting 
antique  structure,  with  some  curious  monuments.  At  a  house 
in  Church  Street,  more  prominently  venerable  than  the  rest, 
Daniel  De  Foe  resided,  and  is  said  within  those  very  walls  to 
have  written  "  Robinson  Crusoe."  There  is  no  necessity  for 
another  word  to  enchain  the  attention  of  the  spectator — the 
old  building  becomes  in  a  moment  encompassed  with  a  halo 
of  glory,  and  the  familiar  associations  inseparably  linked  with 
the  Desert  (Island  come  thronging  up  around  us  as  we  gaze. 
A  little  further  on  Mrs.  Ireton,  the  daughter  of  Cromwell,  once 
lived,  for  in  her  day  this  was  the  fashionable  suburb ;  and  a 
few  doors  beyond,  at  a  house  somewhat  similar  in  its  primitive 
aspect  to  that  we  have  pointed  out  as  De  Foe's,  the  kind- 
hearted  Dr.  Watts  fixed  his  dweUing.  Howard  the  Philan- 
thropist— what  a  noble  distinctive  adjunct  to  a  name  I — Dr. 
Aiken,  Mrs.  Barbauld,  and  others  of  similarly  peaceful  literaiy 
pursuits,  were  long  inhabitants  of  these  precincts,  and  it  is  just 
the  kind  of  tranquil  locality  one  would  fancy  them  to  have 
chose«.  At  the  back  of  the  church  is  a  lane  lined  with  lofty 
trees,  known  as  "  Queen  Elizabeth's  Walk,"  and  at  the  end  is 
I>  2 

36  WOOD   GBEEN. 

a  building  where  she  is  said  to  have  held  her  assignations  with 
the  Earl  of  Leicester.  Abney  Park  Cemetery,  on  the  site  of 
the  Manor  House  belonging  to  Sir  Thomas  Abney,  the 
intimate  friend  of  Dr.  Watts,  is  set  apart  for  Dissenters,  and 
has  some  grounds  neatly  laid  out.  Stamford  HiU,  overlooking 
the  pleasant  valley  of  the  Lea,  is  a  little  further  on,  and 
amongst  its  elegant  villas  is  one  belonging  to  the  Rothschilds'. 
Kear  here  is  the  New  River  reservoir,  which  supplies  London 
with  water.  During  the  thirty  miles  of  its  course,  it  is  crossed 
by  215  bridges.  The  descent  not  being  great  enough,  a  huge 
steam  pump  is  kept  going  night  and  day,  which  forces  it  up  to 
the  snmmit  of  the  highest  houses.  Sir  Hugh  Myddleton,  the 
originator  of  this  noble  scheme,  fixed  upon  two  springs  in 
Hertfordshire  for  the  source,  one  near  Ware  at  Chadwell,  the 
other  at  Amwell.  After  many  delays,  the  work  was  commenced 
on  the  20th  of  February,  1608.  In  about  five  years  it  was 
completed,  and  in  1 622  the  skilful  and  enterprising  "  citizen 
and  goldsmith"  was  knighted.  For  eighteen  years  afterwards 
it  yielded  no  dividend,  and  then  but  a  trifle ;  now  a  share  is 
worth  £14,000.  About  thirty  million  gallons  of  water  are 
daily  distributed  through  the  pipes  of  the  company. 

On  the  high  road  between  Homsey,  Tottenham,  and  South- 
gate,  is  Wood  Green,  as  charming  a  spot  as  its  sylvan  name 
implies,  and  one  of  the  many  niral  nooks  with  which  the 
environs  abound.  On  one  side  of  the  Green  a  district  church 
of  stone,  in  the  early  English  style,  with  a  bell  gable,  has  been 
lately  erected  in  excellent  taste.  Here  is  the  Asylum  of  "  The 
Fishmongers'  and  Poulterers'  Institution,"  of  which  the  first 
stone  was  laid  by  Lord  Morpeth  in  June,  1847.  It  is  a  cleverly 
designed  building,  of  the  Elizabethan  character,  and  the  central 
portion  especially,  with  its  towers  and  vanes,  very  eflectively 
picturesque.  The  plot  of  ground  attached  comprises  nearly 
four  acres,  so  that  there  ^vill  be  ample  room  in  this  happy 
haven  for  the  peaceful  enjoyment  of  those  who  may  seek  in  it 
a  retreat  from  the  storms  of  life  and  consolation  in  beclouded 
old  age.    On  the  opposite  side  of  the  church  (as  appears  from 


an  inscription)  the  Letter-press  Printers  of  London  have 
selected  a  plot  of  ground,  for  the  erection  of  almshouses  for 
the  aged  members  of  their  profession.  A  more  salubrious  spot 
could  not  have  been  chosen;  and  we  understand  that  the 
first  stone  of  the  asylum  will  shortly  be  laid.  W.  Webb,  Esq., 
the  architect  of  the  Fishmongers'  and  Poulterers'  Institution, 
has  also  been  selected  to  erect  that  of  the  Printers.  How 
glorious  the  thought,  in  threading  the  environs  of  our  great 
metropolis,  that  almost  every  pleasant  nook  has  been  made 
available  for  such  philanthropic  designs  as  these  neighbouring 
and  kindred  institutions. 

On  the  same  road,  two  miles  from  Stoke  Newington,  is 
Tottenham  with  its  ancient  cross,  one  of  those  erected  by 
Edward  L  in  1290,  as  an  affectionate  remembrance  of  it  being 
one  of  the  funeral  resting  places  of  Eleanor,  his  deceased 
Queen.  The  station  of  the  Eastern  Counties  Railway  is  a 
short  distance  from  the  town.  Two  miles  further  is  Edmonton, 
linked  with  the  humours  of  the  adventurous  flight  of  John 
Gilpin,  as  recorded  by  Cowper,  and  which  are  perpetuated 
pictorially  by  a  painting  over  the  "  Bell"  Inn.  The  church 
in  Lower  Edmonton  has  got  some  attractions  in  its  old  tower 
of  three  centuries  back,  but  the  remaining  portion  was  rebuilt 
in  1772.  This  is  now  also  a  railway  station.  Winchmore  Hill, 
a  mile  to  the  west,  is  a  favourite  suburban  retreat.  Enfield 
has  nothing  to  boast  of  now  but  the  memory  of  its  "  Chase," 
an  extensive  tract  of  woodland,  formerly  a  favorite  hunting 
ground  for  royalty,  but  disafforested  in  1777.  White  Webbs, 
near  Enfield  Wash,  was  whei'e  the  associates  of  Guy  Fawkes 
retired  to  await  the  result  of  the  Gunpowder  Plot.  Skirting 
the  woody  glades  of  Theobalds  Park,  where  Lord  Burleigh 
built  a  palace  in  the  reign  of  Elizabeth,  and  where  James  I. 
died  in  1625,  we  enter  Hertfordshire,  and  approach  the  neat 
town  of  Waltham  Cross,  eleven  miles  from  town  by  the  road, 
and  a  railway  station  of  the  Eastern  Counties.  The  cross  that 
gives  name  to  the  place  was  restored  in  1834,  and  is  a  fine 
specimen  of  the  pointed  style  of  architecture  in  vogue  about 

38  CHESflTJNT. 

the  thirteenth  century,  in  the  last  ten  years  of  winch  it  was 
originally  built.  It  is  one  of  about  fifteen  that  were  erected  by 
King  Edward  I.,  in  memory  of  his  affectionate  and  devoted 
wife,  Eleanor  of  Castile,  to  mark  the  spot  where  the  bier  rested 
for  the  night  in  the  long  and  melancholy  journey  which  he 
himself  made  with  it  from  Herdely  in  Nottinghamshire,  near 
which  place  she  died,  to  Westminister  Abbey,  where  her 
remains  were  interred  in  the  Chapel  of  Edward  the  Confessor. 
It  is  of  an  hexagonal  form,  and  divided  into  three  compart- 
ments, each  presenting  a  statue  of  the  Queen.  The  cross  is 
adjoining  the  Falcon  Inn,  a  little  out  of  the  main  road  as  you 
go  down  to  the  railway  station. 

Cheshunt,  two  miles  further,  is  chiefly  noticeable  for  its  park, 
where  Wolsey  had  a  temporary  residence,  and  where  Richard 
Cromwell,  the  son  of  the  Protector,  and  himself  the  brief 
possessor  of  a  similar  dignity,  passed  the  quiet  hours  of  his 
peaceful  life.  To  avoid  the  curiosity  of  visitors  he  went  fcr 
some  time  under  a  feigned  name,  sometimes  calling  himself 
Mr.  Wallis,  and  more  generally  Mr.  Richard  Clark.  He  was 
then  a  quiet  country  old  gentleman,  who  seemed  contented  to 
forget  all  his  former  family  greatness.  Dr.  Watts  used  fre- 
quently to  come  over  from  Stoke  Newington  and  pay  him  a 
visit,  and  he  used  to  say  that  he  never  heard  him  allude  to  his . 
former  station  except  once,  and  then  only  in  a  very  distant 
manner.  Here  he  hunted,  shot,  hawked,  and  fished  to  the  last 
year  of  his  green  old  age.  It  is  reported  that  he  enjoyed  an 
uninterrupted  state  of  health,  and  that  when  he  was  80  years 
old  he  could  gallop  his  horse  for  miles  without  drawing  rein 
or  feeling  fatigue.  Richard  Cromwell  died  here  at  the  age  of 
86,  in  1712,  the  last  year  of  the  reign  of  Queen  Anne.  His 
remains  were  removed  with  some  pomp  from  Hertfordshire  to 
Hampshire,  and  deposited  near  those  of  his  beloved  wife 
Dorothy,  and  his  son  Oliver,  in  the  chancel  of  Hnrsley  Church. 
Several  Roman  coins  have  been  found  in  the  neighbourhood. 

Broxhoume,  the  next  place  of  interest,  is  sixteen  miles  from 
town,  and  a  pleasant  fishing  station,  on  the  Cambridge  line  of 


the  Eastern  Counties  Eailway,  near  where  the  branch  diverges 
to  Hertford  and  Ware.  The  church  is  old,  with  some  handsome 
monuments,  and  the  country  round  is  pastoral  and  well  watered 
by  the  Stort  and  Lea.  Crossing  the  little  bridge  over  the  railway, 
it  is  worth  while  to  visit  Want's  hostel,  and  whilst  enjoying  a 
flsh  dinner,  which  you  can  have  here  in  perfection,  with 
"  chops  to  follow,"  in  the  most  approved  city  fashion,  indulge 
in  a  reminiscence  of  old  Izaak  Walton,  who  hath  so  intimately 
associated  himself  with  the  scenery  hereabout.  The  "  flowery 
meads"  and  the  "  crystal  streams,"  on  which  he  loved  so  much 
to  descant,  are  Uttle  changed  by  time.  We  can  almost  point 
out  the  spot  where  he  gives  his  precepts  to  the  scholar,  as  they 
sit  and  discourse,  whilst  "  a  smoking  shower  passes  off,  freshen- 
ing all  the  meadows  and  the  flowers,"  and  fancy  the  exact 
honeysuckle  hedge  where  they  did  once  rest  "  while  a  shower 
falls,  and  encounter  a  handsome  milkmaid  and  her  mother, 
who  sing  to  them  that  smooth  song,  which  was  made  by  Kit 
Marlow — 'Come,  live  with  me  and  be  my  love,'  and  the 
answer  to  it,  which  was  made  by  Sir  Walter  Ealeigh,  and 
sung  by  him  in  his  younger  days."  And  we  can  swear  to  the 
identity  of  the  little  ale-house,  well  known  to  Piscators,  wheie 
they  found  "  a  cleanly  room,  with  lavender  in  the  windows, 
and  twenty  ballads  stuck  about  the  walls,"  and  where,  ha\-ing 
made  a  supper  of  their  gallant  trout,  they  drink  their  ale,  tell 
tales,  sing  ballads,  or  join  with  a  brother  angler,  who  drops  in, 
in  a  merry  catch  till  sleep  overpowers  them  and  they  retire  to 
their  hostess's  two  beds,  the  "  linen  of  which  looks  white  and 
smells  of  lavender,"  whilst  old  Izaak  sheds  his  last  benediction 
on  "  all  that  are  lovers  of  virtue  and  dare  trust  in  Pro\'i- 
dence  and  go  a-angling."  Who  hath  not  felt  the  luxuriant 
freshness  which  abideth  for  ever  in  the  pages  of  the  "  Complete 

Hoddesdon  is  peculiarly  noted  for  some  of  the  oldest  inns  in 
the  county,  and  for  a  fine  water  conduit  in  the  centre  of  the 
town,  the  gift  of  Sir  Marmaduke  Kawdon,  in  1679,  and  com- 
memorated by  the  poet  Matthew  Prior.    Eawdon  House  is  a 


venerable  mansion,  recently  restored  from  the  state  of  decay 
into  which  it  had  fallen  a  few  years  back,  and  should  be  visited 
by  all  who  have  an  eye  for  the  picturesque  of  architecture.  At 
Haileybury,  north  of  the  road,  is  the  East  India  College, 
founded  in  1806,  for  the  scientific  education  of  the  civil 
officers  sent  out  to  India.  The  Oriental  languages  arc  here 
taught  to  about  a  hundred  students. 

Hertford,  the  county  town,  is  five  miles  from  Hoddesdon, 
and  twenty-one  miles  from  Shoreditch  Church,  by  the  road, 
agreeably  situated  on  the  Lea  near  its  junction  with  four 
smaller  rivers,  and  in  the  midst  of  a  fine  agricultural  district, 
long  famous  for  its  growth  of  com.  It  has  all  the  importance 
derived  from  antiquity,  and  once  had  a  castle,  where  Queen 
Elizabeth  resided,  and  John,  King  of  France,  and  David,  King 
of  Scotland,  were  both  kept  prisoners  of  war.  The  wall  and 
mound  are  still  visible,  but  a  private  residence  was  about  a 
century  ago  erected  on  its  site.  Besides  the  two  remaining 
parish  churches — there  were  once  five — the  County  Hall  and 
the  Preparatory  School  for  Christ's  Hospital  are  the  chief 
public  buildings.  This  admirable  scholastic  establishment  is 
in  the  London  Road,  and  affords  education  to  about  400  boys 
and  80  girls,  having  an  infirmary  for  100  children,  whenever 
occasion  should  require.  Two  miles  from  Hertford,  on  the 
banks  of  the  river  Maran,  is  Penshanger,  the  seat  of  Earl 
Cowper,  who  has  claimed  the  honor  of  a  descent  from  the 
poet.  In  the  park,  which  is  laid  out  in  a  pretty  sylvan  style, 
is  a  remarkable  oak,  measuring  at  five  feet  from  the  ground 
nearly  seventeen  feet  in  circumference.  Amwell,  the  chief 
source  of  the  New  River  supply,  is  three  miles  from  Hertford, 
and  worth  the  pilgrimage  to  its  picturesque  precincts.  The 
spring  issues  from  a  hill  on  which  the  church  is  built,  and 
there  is  a  monument  here  to  the  memory  of  Sir  Hugh  Myd- 
delton,  erected  in  1800,  which  records  the  success  of  his 
experiment.  The  family  seem  to  have  derived  little  benefit 
from  the  enterprise  and  exertions  of  their  ancestor.  Lady 
Myddelton,  the  mother  of  the  last  Sir  Hugh,  received  a 

WABE.  41 

pension  of  twenty  pounds  per  annum  from  tlie  Goldsmiths' 

Ware  is  so  closely  linked  to  Hertford,  by  its  two  miles  of 
intermediate  buildings,  that  few  who  visit  Hertford  would 
leave  the  neighbourhood  ^vithout  going  to  Ware,  if  only  on 
account  of  the  famous  Great  Bed,  which  has  enjoyed,  in 
legendary  lore  and  antiquarian  history,  a  reputation  of  some 
six  centuries.  The  curious  may  behold  this  remarkably  antique 
piece  of  furniture  at  the  Saracen's  Head  Hotel,  from  which 
the  late  Duke  of  Norfolk  offered  to  take  it  to  Arundel  Castle, 
for  a  consideration  of  100  guineas;  but  the  proprietor  of  the 
inn  manfully  resisted  the  temptation.  The  dimensions,  how- 
ever much  beyond  modem  dormitory  notions,  are  somewhat 
disappointing — 12  feet  square  being  the  superficies  covered. 
Antiquarians  differ,  much  as  usual,  about  its  origin,  but  the 
majority  assign  it  to  the  time  of  Edward  the  Second,  whose 
state  bed  it  is  presumed  to  have  been.  The  church  contains 
some  brasses  dating  back  to  1454,  and  there  is  a  tomb  com- 
memorative of  Elizabeth  de  Clare,  grand-daughter  of  Edward  I. 
Sir  Henr)'  Fanshaw,  to  whom  Ware  Park  belonged  in  1625, 
is  also  buried  here. 

Hatfield,  seven  miles  from  Hertford,  and  five  from  St. 
Alban's,  is  a  deUghtful  drive  when  opportunity  offers.  Hat- 
field House,  the  seat  of  the  Earl  of  Salisbury,  is  a  fine  old 
mansion  in  the  Elizabethan  style,  and  was  honored,  in  the 
autumn  of  1846,  by  a  visit  from  her  present  Majesty.  It  was 
originally  the  palace  of  the  Bishop  of  Ely,  and  was  rebuilt  by 
Sir  Robert  Cecil,  afterwards  Earl  of  Salisbury,  in  the  early 
part  of  the  reign  of  James  I.  In  1835  a  portion  of  the  west 
Aving  was  destroyed  by  fire,  and  the  dowager  Marchioness 
burned  to  death,  since  wliich  period  it  has  been  closed  to  the 
public.  On  the  right,  at  the  end  of  the  avenue  in  the  Park,  is 
"  Queen  Elizabeth's  oak,"  said  to  be  the  tree  under  which 
Elizabeth  was  sitting  when  the  news  of  Queen  Mary's  death 
was  brought  to  her.  A  great  part  of  the  trunk  has  been  pro- 
tected by  a  leaden  covering  and  enclosed  by  a  low  fence.  The 


garden  adjoining  the  remains  of  the  old  palace  is  a  quaint 
specimen  of  Elizabeth's  horticultural  taste,  and  contains  a 
rock-work  basin  of  water,  with  at  each  angle  a  mulberry  tree, 
reputed  to  have  been  planted  by  King  James,  her  successor. 
The  celebrated  vineyard  was  cleared  away  a  few  years  ago, 
and  is  now  turned  into  a  kitchen  garden.  The  interior  is 
magnificently  appointed,  and  within  the  last  three  years  no 
less  than  £50,000  have  been  expended  on  the  embellishments. 
The  views  from  the  mansion  are  exceedingly  fine.  To  the 
west  is  the  venerable  Abbey  Church  of  St.  Albans,  then 
Sandridge  Hill,  and  Brockett  Hall  and  Park,  the  seat  of  Lord 
Melbome,  appear,  with  Wood  Hall  Parks  towards  the  north ; 
Digswell  House,  Tewin  "Water,  and  Panshanger,  lay  to  the 
east;  and  the  south  presents  two  interesting  localities  in 
Gobions,  near  North  Mims,  once  a,  seat  of  Sir  Thomas  More, 
and  Tyttenhanger,  once  the  residence  of  the  powerftil  Abbots 
of  Saint  Albans,  to  which,  in  1528,  Henry  VHI.  and  Queen 
Katherine  retired  for  the  summer  season. 

We  have  here  made  a  somewhat  extensive  detour,  but  the 
excursionist  can  consult  his  own  inclination  as  to  the  way  in 
which  he  shall  avail  himself  of  the  means  of  progress  to  the 
localities  indicated.  Be  it  remembered,  however,  that  the  line 
of  the  Eastern  Counties  Railway  passes  for  some  distance 
almost  parallel  with  his  route.  There  are  stations  at  Waltham 
(14  miles  by  railway),  Broxboume  (19),  St.  Margarets  (22), 
Ware  (24j),  and  Hertford  (26),  at  either  of  which  he  can  take 
the  train,  and  so  return  to  town.  Or  the  return  from  Hatfield 
can  be  varied  by  taking  the  road  back  through  Chipping 
Bamet,  Whetstone,  and  Highgate,  a  distance  of  twenty  miles. 
Coaches  and  minor  conveyances  pass  along  what  may  still  be 
called  the  "  Great  North  Road"  several  times  a  day. 



For  the  accomplishment  of  this  we  must  resort  to  steam, 
and  the  locomotive  powers  of  the  Great  Western  Eaihvay, 
which  M'ill  enable  us  to  alight  at  the  Slovgh  Station,  and  bring 
us  within  a  short  distance  of  the  many  interesting  localities 
that  will  occupy  the  busy  day  before  us.  Slough  is  1 8  miles 
from  the  Paddington  Terminus,  and  within  three  miles  of 
Windsor,  to  which  an  omnibus  will  convey  the  passenger  for 
a  small  charge.  Crossing  the  bridge,  which  spanning  the 
Thames  connects  Eton  with  Windsor,  we  may  glance  at  the 
celebrated  college,  founded  in  1442  by  Henry  VI.,  console  our- 
selves with  a  passing  quotation  from  Gray's  ode  on  a  distant 
prospect  of  its  towers,  for  the  bygone  glories  of  its  vanished 
"  Montem,"  and  then  enter  the  royal  town,  that  has  been  for 
centmies  the  chosen  seat  of  the  kings  and  queens  of  England. 
Windsor  Park  and  Windsor  Castle  possess,  with  the  surround- 
ing scenery,  inexhaustible  attractions  for  the  stranger,  and  lose 
none  of  their  charms  even  after  an  acquaintance  of  several 
years.  So  long  back  as  the  days  of  the  early  Saxons,  when 
Windkshora  was  its  name,  from  the  windings  of  the  Thames, 
a  castle  stood  at  Old  Windsor,  appropriated  to  the  crown  as  a 
palatial  residence.  William  the  Conqueror  next  built  a  far 
better  structure  on  the  present  site,  and  laid  the  foundation  of 


its  future  importance.  Here  Henry  I,  held  his  court,  and  hav- 
ing enlarged  the  castle  with  "  many  fair  buildings,"  kept  tht 
festiral  of  Whitsuntide  with  xmusual  solemnities  in  1110.  In 
the  time  of  Stephen  it  was  the  second  fortress  in  the  kingdom, 
and  sustained  several  changes  of  masters  during  the  wars 
between  the  crown  and  the  barons,  in  the  turbulent  reigns  of 
John  and  Henry  HL  Edward  the  Third  was  bom  here,  and 
extended  the  structure,  on  a  most  expensive  scale,  in  1356. 
William  of  Wykeham  was  the  architect,  and  it  is  recorded 
that  in  one  year  660  workmen  were  impressed  to  be  employed 
at  the  king's  wages — no  very  liberal  remuneration,  we  may  be 
«ure,  when  the  architect  himself  had  only  a  shilling  a  day. 
The  festivals  of  the  Order  of  the  Garter  were  here  celebrated 
with  great  splendour.  For  the  especial  service  of  this  order, 
Edward  HL  erected  at  Windsor  a  chapel  dedicated  to  St. 
George,  but  the  present  beautiful  chapel  is  of  much  later  date. 
It  was  begun  by  Edward  IV.,  who  found  it  necessary  to  take 
down  the  original  fabric,  on  account  of  its  decayed  state,  and 
was  not  completed  until  the  beginning  of  Henry  the  Eighth's 
reign-  It  was  here  that  Richard  IL  heard  the  appeal  of  high 
treason  brought  by  the  Duke  of  Lancaster  against  Mowbray 
poke  of  Norfolk,  and  which  ended  in  the  former  becoming 
Henry  IV.  The  Earl  of  Surrey,  imprisoned  for  violating  the 
canons  of  the  church  by  eating  flesh  in  Lent,  here  wooed  the 
muse  in  his  retirement,  and  here  was  the  last  prison  of  that 
unfortunate  monarch,  Charles  I.  Passing  over  the  intermediate 
reigns,  as  presenting  little  of  interest  in  connection  with  the 
building,  we  may  mention  that  George  HI.  dwelt  for  many 
years  in  a  white-washed  house,  at  the  foot  of  his  own  palace, 
till  he  was  perstiaded  at  length  to  occupy  the  old  castle. 
George  IV.,  soon  after  his  succession,  commenced  some  exten- 
sive improvements,  and,  under  the  superintendance  of  Sir 
Jefirey  Wyatville,  it  was  thoroughly  renovated,  and  in  many 
portions  rebuilt.  With  this  brief  preparatory  glance  at  its 
former  history,  we  now  proceed  up  Castle  Street,  and  com- 
mence our  rapid  survey  of  its  most  prominent  features. 

friNDSOB.  4ft 

The  usual  entrance  is  under  Henry  the  Eighth's  gateway; 
leading  to  the  lower  ward,  and  close  to  that  magnificent 
specimen  of  Gothic  architecture,  St,  George's  Chapel  Though 
this  building  and  its  decorations  are  pre-eminently  beautiful, 
it  is  perfectly  of  a  devotional  character.  The  richly  decorated 
roof,  supported  on  clustered  columns,  the  "  storied  windows, 
richly  dight,"  the  banners  and  escutcheons  of  the  knights  of 
the  garter,  and  the  massive  floor  of  marble,  all  unite  to  produce 
a  striking  and  impressive  effect.  As  works  of  art,  the  monu- 
ments in  the  chapel  are,  perhaps,  disappointing.  Edward  IV. 
is  buried  here,  beneath  that  remarkable  specimen  of  elaborate 
ingenuity,  the  iron  tomb  of  Quintin  Matsys,  the  artist-black- 
smith of  Antwerp ;  and  in  the  opposite  aisle,  under  a  plain 
marble  stone,  his  unhappy  rival,  Henry  VI.,  is  interred.  Henry 
Vm.  and  Charles  I.  are  entombed  under  the  choir,  without  any 
memorial,  and  there  is  a  cenotaph,  by  Wyatt,  to  the  memory 
of  the  Princess  Charlotte.  At  the  foot  of  the  altar  is  a  subter- 
raneous passage,  communicating  with  the  tomb  house,  in 
which  is  the  cemetery  of  the  present  race  of  monarchs, 
containing,  amongst  others,  the  remains  of  George  HI.  and 
Queen  Charlotte,  George  IV.,  William  IV.,  the  Duke  of 
York,  Duke  of  Kent,  and  the  Princesses  Amelia,  Augusta, 
and  Charlotte.  From  the  east  end  of  the  lower  ward  we  pass 
into  the  middle  ward,  bounded  by  a  low  battlement,  enclosing 
a  deep  moat  cultivated  as  a  garden.  The  Bound  Tower,  with 
the  royal  standard  floating  from  the  summit,  hence  appears  to 
great  advantage,  and  twelve  counties  are  within  its  ken. 
This  "  keep,"  as  it  is  sometimes  called,  as  it  formed  the  prison 
of  the  castle  till  1660,  is  not  a  perfect  circle,  for  it  is  192  feet 
in  its  greatest  diameter,  and  93  in  its  smallest;  its  height  is 
80  feet  from  the  top  of  the  mound ;  watch  tower  twenty-five 
more;  and  its  entire  height,  fi-om  the  level  of  the  quadrangle, 
148  feet.  In  the  Great  Quadrangle,  at  the  base  of  the  Round 
Tower,  is  a  bronze  statue  of  Charles  H.,  erected,  in  1679,  at 
the  expense  of  one  Tobias  Rustah,  described  by  Evelyn  as  "  a 
very  simple,  ignorant,  but  honest  and  loyal  creature,"  and 


who  thus  bestowed  a  thousand  pounds.  The  pedestal,  by 
Grinling  Gibbons,  is  very  lino.  On  the  north  side  of  tliis 
quadrangle  is  King  John's  Tower,  and  the  space  between  this 
and  the  massive  square  tower  beyond  is  occupied  by  the 
Queen's  Audience  Chamber,  at  which  the  suite  of  state  apart- 
ments commences.  The  projecting  doorway  is  the  state 
entrance,  on  a  line  with  which  is  the  vestibule,  continued 
through  to  George  the  Fourth's  Tower  in  the  North  Terrace, 
whence  there  is  a  magnificent  vista  of  nearly  three  miles. 
The  North  Terrace  is  open  every  day;  the  others,  only  on 
Saturdays  and  Sundays.  Whilst  on  this  subject,  we  may  as 
well  append  the  other  regulations  of  admission.  St.  George's 
Chapel  is  open  daily,  during  Divine  service,  at  half-past  10, 
a.m.,  and  half-past  4,  p.m.  The  Bound  Tower  is  open  daily. 
The  State  Apartments  on  Mondays,  Wednesdays,  Thursdays, 
and  Saturdays;  hours  from  U  till  6. 

Within  our  prescribed  limits  it  is  manifestly  impossible  to 
give  more  than  a  mere  enumeration  of  the  State  Apartments, 
which  form  a  series  unequalled  in  Europe  for  magnificence. 

Approaching  through  the  gothic  porch  at  the  north-west 
angle  of  the  upper  ward,  we  are  led  by  a  fine  staircase  to 
the  Audience  Chamber,  hung  with  Gobelin  tapestry,  and 
embellished  with  a  painted  ceiling  by  Verrio.  The  Presence 
Chamber,  or  Ball-room,  for  which  purpose  it  is  generally 
appropriated,  is  a  spacious  apartment,  90  feet  long,  32  broad, 
and  33  feet  high,  opening,  at  the  southern  end,  into  St 
George's  Hall,  and  terminating  at  Cornwall  Tower  on  the 
North  Terrace.  The  decorations  are  in  the  Louis  Quatorze 
style.  The  Vandycke  Room  comprises  a  fine  collection  of  the 
works  of  that  eminent  master,  twenty-two  in  number.  The 
"  Five  Children  of  Charles  the  First,"  over  the  chimney  piece, 
and  a  picture  representing  that  unfortunate  monarch  on 
horseback,  at  the  end  of  the  room,  are  particularly  admired. 
The  Guard  Chamber  is  very  attractive  to  visitors,  and  is  78 
feet  long  and  31  feet  high.  It  contains  Chantrey's  colossal 
bust  of  Nelson,  and  part  of  the  foremast  of  the  Victory;  the 


Blenheim  white  banner;  a  bust  of  the  Duke  of  Marlborough; 
Cellini's  silver  shield,  inlaid  with  gold,  presented  by  Francis  I., 
of  France,  to  Henry  VIII. ;  and  a  bust,  by  Chantrey,  of  the 
Duke  of  Wellington,  with  the  last  annual  banner  presented 
on  the  Waterloo  anniversary,  in  memory  of  the  tenure  by 
which  Strathfieldsaye  is  held.  The  walls  are  decorated  with 
arms.  St.  George's  Hall,  with  its  portraits  of  eleven  of  our 
latest  sovereigns,  and  the  Waterloo  Gallery,  pictorially  pre- 
senting the  most  eminent  statesmen  and  soldiers  connected 
with  that  decisive  battle,  are  sure  to  engage  the  visitor's 
attention.  The  other  apartments  are  enriched  with  numerous 
paintings  by  the  most  distinguished  masters,  but  the  catalogues 
describing  them  are  so  cheap,  and  so  complete,  that  it  would 
be  useless  for  us  to  encroach  on  pages  that  might  be  much 
better  occupied  than  by  giving  a  mere  list  of  pictures,  which 
space  would  not  permit  us  to  dwell  upon  as  they  deserve. 

Beneath  the  North  Terrace  are  the  Slopes,  extending  into 
the  Home  (or  Little)  Park,  which  has  been  for  a  long  period 
an  appurtenance  to  the  castle.  Near  the  avenue  called 
"  Queen  Elizabeth's  Walk"  tradition  still  points  out  a 
^^•ithered  tree  as  the  identical  oak  of  "Heme  the  Hunter," 
who,  as  the  old  tale  goes, 

"  Sometime  a  keeper  here  in  Windsor  Forest, 
Doth  all  the  winter  time,  at  still  midnight, 
Walk  round  about  the  oak  with  great  ragged  horns." 

The  Long  Walk,  affording  perhaps  the  finest  vista  of  the  kind 
in  the  world,  extends  from  the  principal  entrance  of  the  castle 
to  the  top  of  a  commanding  hill  in  the  Great  Park,  called 
Snow  Hill,  a  distance  of  three  miles.  There  is  a  splendid 
prospect  at  the  end,  affording  a  panoramic  view  of  several 
memorable  places,  endeared  by  historical  and  poetic  associa- 
tions, A  mile  to  the  eastward,  on  the  same  hilly  ridge  where 
we  stand,  is  "  Cooper's  Hill,"  the  subject  of  a  pleasant  descrip- 
tive poem  by  Sir  John  Denham ;  Windsor  Castle  appears  in 
all  its  massive  grandeur  beneath  us;  to  the  right  is  the 

49  frmosoR. 

Thames,  seen  beyond  Charter  Island,  and  the  little  plain  of 
Runnymede,  where  the  turbulent  barons  extorted  "  Magna 
Charta"  from  King  John ;  whilst  far  beyond,  in  the  blue 
distance,  are  the  hills  of  Harrow  and  Hampstead.  On  the 
summit  of  this  hill,  where  the  avenue  terminates,  was  placed, 
in  the  summer  of  1832,  a  colossal  bronze  equestrian  statue  of 
George  the  Third,  by  Westmacott.  The  total  elevation  is 
more  than  50  feet;  the  statue,  without  the  pedestal,  being  26 
feet  high.  The  likeness  is  very  striking,  but  the  Roman 
costume,  adopted  as  being  more  manageable  in  art  than  a 
square-cut  coat  and  military  jack  boots,  will  convey  an  odd 
notion,  a  thousand  years  hence,  of  the  King  of  England's  dress 
in  the  nineteenth  century. 

Of  course,  those  who  can  afford  the  time  will  not  leave 
Windsor  Park  without  seeing  Virginia  Water,  which  was 
planted  and  the  lake  formed  by  Paul  Sandby,  when  the  Duke 
of  Cumberland,  the  hero  of  Culloden,  resided  at  the  lodge, 
which  still  bears  his  name,  about  three  miles  from  Windsor. 
The  lake  is  the  largest  artificial  piece  of  water  in  the  kingdom, 
if  that  can  be  called  artificial  where  man  has  only  collected 
the  streams  of  the  district  into  a  natural  basin.  The  surround- 
ing scenery  is  exceedingly  pleasing  and  picturesque.  After 
passing  through  a  woody  dell,  we  come  to  some  serpentine 
walks,  which  lead  in  different  directions ;  those  to  the  right 
conducting  us  to  a  somewhat  steep  hill,  on  the  summit  of 
which  stands  a  handsome  gothic  battlemented  building,  called 
the  Belvidere ;  and  those  to  the  left  leading  to  the  margin  of 
the  lake.  At  the  head  of  the  lake  is  a  cascade,  descending 
some  twenty  feet,  over  massive  fragments  of  stone,  mto 
a  dark  glen  or  ravine.  Near  it  is  an  obelisk  standing  on  a 
small  mount,  and  bearing  the  following  inscription,  added  by 
William  IV. : — "  This  obelisk  was  raised  by  the  conunand  of 
George  II.,  after  the  battle  of  Culloden,  in  commemoration  of 
the  services  of  his  son  William,  Duke  of  Cumberland,  the 
success  of  his  arms,  and  the  gratitude  of  his  father,"  There 
is  a  road  hence  to  the  banks  of  the  lake,  where  we  can  reach 


a  rustic  bridge,  and  get  a  fine  view  of  the  waterfall  and  its 
cavern  adjacent,  formed  of  stones  brought  from  Bagshot 
Heath,  where  they  indicated  the  ruins  of  a  Saxon  cromlech. 
At  the  point  where  the  lake  is  widest,  a  fishing  temple  was 
erected  by  George  IV. 

A  bold  arch  carries  the  public  road  to  Blachnest,  over  a 
portion  of  the  grounds,  and  adjoining  is  an  ornamental  ruin, 
called  the  "  Temple  of  the  Gods,"  manufactured  from  some 
really  antique  fragments  of  Greek  columns  and  pediments, 
that  used  to  lie  in  the  court  yard  of  the  British  Museum.  The 
effect  is  striking,  and  much  more  so  if  the  spectator  will  for  a 
moment  let  fancy  delude  him  into  the  belief  that  he  is  gazing 
on  a  real  temple  of  ancient  Athens.  The  tall  trees,  clustering 
round  in  one  part,  and  in  another  opening  on  to  glades  of 
truly  sylvan  aspect,  impart  a  romantic  beauty  to  the  landscape 
from  this  point,  which  utterly  defies  description.  It  is  worth 
while  to  cross  the  little  bridge  above  alluded  to,  and,  passing 
one  of  the  streams  that  feed  the  lake,  pursue  its  windings 
among  the  underwood,  or  strike  into  the  path  which  leads  to 
Bishop" s-gate,  a  beautiful  ■\-illage,  environed  by  all  the  charms 
of  wood  and  water  diversity.  Here  resided  for  some  time 
Shelley,  who  has  consecrated  the  allurements  of  this  spot  by 
some  of  his  finest  poems,  written  in  the  vicinity.  There  are 
several  ways  of  approaching  Virginia  Water,  each  so  attractive 
that  it  is  diflScult  to  decide  upon  the  best;  but,  by  whichever 
route  the  excursionist  comes,  we  would  suggest  the  adoption 
of  another  road  for  the  return.  About  two  miles  beyond  the 
to^vn  of  Egham  is  a  neat  wayside  inn,  called  the  "  Wheat- 
sheaf"  from  the  garden  of  which  there  is  direct  access  to  the 
lake.  From  Egham  Hill  a  road  diverges  through  "Windsor 
Park  to  Reading,  nineteen  miles  distant.  A  few  hundred 
yards  above  the  inn  is  a  branch  road  to  the  right,  leading  to 
Blacknest,  where  there  is  also  an  entrance  through  the 
keeper's  lodge.  Besides  this,  there  is  a  dehghtful  drive  of 
five  miles  to  Virginia  Water  from  Chertsey. 

Stoke  Pogis,  two  miles  from  Slough,  is  hallowed  gronnd, 



from  containing  the  churchyard  which  suggested  Gray's  well- 
known  "  Elegy,"  as  well  as  the  remains  of  the  pensive  poet 
himself.  Gray  died  on  the  30th  of  July,  1771,  in  the  55th 
year  of  his  age,  and  was  buried,  according  to  his  own  affec- 
tionate wish,  by  the  side  of  his  mother;  thus  adding  another 
poetical  association  to  this  beautiful  and  classic  region.  Bum- 
ham  is  a  small,  but  most  picturesque  village,  four  miles  from 
Slough,  with  a  marvellous  minature  forest,  called  "  Bumham 
Beeches" — the  finest  spot  in  the  world  for  a  pic-nic,  and 
absolutely  unrivalled  for  the  romantic  character  of  its  sylvan 
scenery.  There  are  the  ruins  of  an  Augustine  Nunnery  close 
bj',  which,  though  now  partly  fashioned  into  a  farm-house,  had 
the  honour  of  having  been  built  by  an  expatriated  king  of  the 
Homans,  in  1228.  A  pedestrian  of  congenial  temperament, 
who  rambles  down  here  in  the  dawn  of  a  summer's  morning, 
would  find  it  no  easy  matter  to  tear  himself  away  before 
twilight.  The  Great  Western  Railway  is  again  our  connecting 
link  with  town,  and  hence  the  train  will  bear  us  back  to  those 
gas-lit  streets,  which,  in  their  noisy  bustle  and  confusion,  will 
contrast  so  strangely  with  the  sylvan  glades  and  tranquil 
solitudes  from  which  we  have  just  departed. 





The  North  Western,  or  London  and  Birmingham  Railway,  is 
the  best  and  quickest  mode  of  transit  for  oar  present  interest- 
ing excursion.  We  have  ahready  described  {Excursion  II.') 
the  scenery  along  the  line  to  Harrow;  so,  to  avoid  unnecessary 
repetition,  we  shall  presume  a  ticket  has  been  taken  to  the 
Watford  Station,  and  proceed  with  our  delineation  of  the 
objects  encountered  betweeen  that  place  and  our  temporary 
destination.  After  leaving  the  Harrow  Station,  we  cross  in  a 
few  minutes  the  Oxhey  ridge,  about  thirteen  miles  from 
London,  and  pass  from  Middlesex  into  Hertfordshire.  It  is 
a  portion  of  that  high  ground  which  runs  round  the  northern 
and  western  extremity  of  the  former  county.  We  next  enter 
the  valley  of  the  Colne,  which  river  is  formed  by  the  junction 
of  several  small  streams  uniting  at  North  Mims;  about  half- 
way between  St.  Albans  and  Watford,  it  is  joined  by  another 
stream,  and  then,  passing  Watford,  it  takes  a  western  course 
to  Rickmansworth,  and  finally  falls  into  the  Thames  at 
Staines.  Just  beyond  Bushey  a  handsome  viaduct  conducts 
us  over  the  Colne,  and  shortly  after  we  arrive  at  the  Watford 
Station,  which  is  about  a  mile  from  the  town. 

Watford,  which  though  eighteen  miles  from  London  by 

railway,  is  only  fifteen  by  the  road,  is  a  busy,  thriving,  and 

populous  little  town,    albeit    deficient    in    those    points    of 

picturesque  or  antiquarian  interest  whicli  are  so  pleasant  to 


fi2  SAINT   ALBAN's. 

encounter  in  a  trip  out  of  town.  It  consists  principally  of  one 
long  street,  in  the  centre  of  which  is  the  church,  an  ancient 
structure  with  a  fine  embattled  tower  and  lofty  spire,  and 
containing  two  noticeable  monuments,  by  Nicolas  Stone,  to 
the  two  Sir  Charles  Morrisons.  But,  if  Watford  itself  be  scant 
of  attraction,  ample  amends  are  made  by  a  certain  large 
domain  at  the  north-west  of  the  town,  called  Cashiobury,  the 
seat  of  the  Earl  of  Essex,  and  said  to  have  been  anciently  the 
residence  of  the  Kings  of  Mercia.  The  mansion  once  belonged 
to  the  monastery  of  St.  Albau's,  and  is  still,  though  much 
modernised  by  Sir  Jeflfrey  Wyatville,  a  fine  specimen  of  the 
castellated  buildings  of  yore.  There  is  within,  besides  some 
rare  articles  of  vertu,  a  good  collection  of  modem  paintings, 
which  are  shown  to  visitors  throughout  the  year,  on  Mondays 
and  Thursdays,  from  1 1  till  5.  The  park  is  an  extensive  tract 
of  woodland,  well  kept,  and  laid  out  in  the  best  taste,  with  a 
sort  of  Swiss  summer-house  on  the  banks  of  the  Grand 
Junction  Canal,  by  which  it  is  intersected.  We  need  hardly 
remind  the  reader  that  one  of  the  favorites  of  our  early  play- 
going  days,  "  sweet  Kitty  Stephens,"  of  musical  memory, 
afterwards  became  the  Countess  of  Essex.  Grove  Park, 
adjoining,  is  the  residence  of  the  Earl  of  Clarendon. 

Seven  miles  from  Watford  is  St.  Albans,  twenty-one  miles 
from  town,  and  so  venerable  that,  even  in  the  time  of  the 
Romans,  it  was  an  ancient  city.  The  ground  about  here  is 
full  of  historical  recollections.  It  was  here  that,  in  1066, 
Fritheric,  abbot  of  St.  Alban's,  compelled  the  Norman  Con- 
queror to  concede  some  important  privileges.  Here,  in  1455, 
was  fought  the  famous  battle  in  which  the  Duke  of  York 
defeated  Henry  VI.,  and  took  him  prisoner;  and  here,  six 
years  afterwards,  the  Yorkists,  under  the  king-making  Earl  of 
Warwick,  were  defeated  by  the  Lancastrians  under  Queen 
Margaret,  and  the  king  liberated.  But,  regardless  of  other 
attractions,  we  stroll  first  to  the  old  Abbey,  which,  even  in  its 
present  decadence,  exhibits  conspicuous  signs  of  its  former 
power  and  grandeur.    The  Abbey  of  St.  Alban's  is  now  600 


feet  long,  174  feet  wide,  and  65  feet  high.  The  elevation  of 
the  great  tower  is  1 74  feet.  Oft'a  the  Great,  King  of  Mercia, 
was  its  founder  in  795,  and  dedicated  it  to  Alban,  a  native  of 
Verulam,  who  had  been  a  soldier  at  Rome,  suffered  martyr- 
dom for  his  faith,  and,  being  the  first  Briton  who  had  been 
put  to  death  for  his  religious  opinions,  was  called  "  England's 
first  martyr."  From  this  period  the  ancient  Verulam  of  the 
Romans  was  thence  called  St.  Alban's.  For  more  than  seven 
centuries  the  Abbey  flourished  in  great  splendour ;  its  build- 
ings, erected  from  time  to  time,  causing  it  to  resemble  a  town 
rather  than  a  religious  house.  The  kings  of  the  twelfth  and 
thirteenth  centuiies  were  frequently  entertained  in  its  magnifi- 
cent apartments,  and  its  annual  revenue  was  estimated  at 
£2,500 — an  enormous  sum  in  the  days  when  a  fat  oxen  Avas 
purchaseable  for  a  few  shillings.  This  immense  establishment 
has  now  dwindled  to  a  few  scattered  walls,  a  gatehouse,  and 
the  present  parochial  church,  which,  at  the  destruction  of 
convents,  was  purchased  by  the  corporation.  In  consequence 
of  some  large  masses  of  the  Abbey  battlements  falling  in  upon 
the  roof,  in  1832,  the  whole  fabric  was  put  under  repair,  at  an 
outlay  of  nearly  £20,000,  and  it  now  presents  an  edifice  equal 
in  magnitude  as  well  as  decoration  to  some  of  our  largest 
cathedrals.  Here  may  be  seen  the  monuments  of  many 
illustrious  men,  particularly  those  to  St.  Alban  himself,  Sir 
John  Mandeville,  one  of  our  earliest  travellers,  who  well 
earned  the  privilege  of  seeing  "  strange  things,"  and  the 
"  good  Duke  Humphrey"  of  Gloucester,  brother  of  Henry  V., 
whose  hospitality  still  lingers  in  the  memory  of  those  who 
have  no  other  dinner  invjtation.  But  there  is  yet  another 
shrine,  to  which  a  pilgrimage  must  be  made.  The  great  Lord 
Chancellor  Bacon — whose  residence  was  Gorhambury  House, 
now  the  seat  of  the  Earls  of  Verulam — lies  buried  in  the 
ancient  church  of  St.  Michael's,  under  a  marble  tomb,  where 
his  effigy  in  stone  records  his  world-wide  fame,  with  the 
simple  inscription  of  "  Franciscus  Bacon."  The  ruins  of 
Sopwell  Nunnery,  where  Iving  Henry  VHL  and  Anna  Boleyu 

54  abbot's  ianglet. 

used  to  come  and  have  a  quiet  iete-d-tete  to  themselves,  may 
still  be  seen  on  the  south  bank  of  the  Verulam  river.  If  the 
excursionist  wishes  to  diversify  his  route  home,  we  recom- 
mend to  him  a  stroll  of  about  five  miles  to  Kin^s  Langley, 
where  there  is  a  station  at  which  he  can  rejoin  the  railway. 
King's  Langley  was  a  part  of  the  royal  demesne,  and  there 
was  anciently  here  a  royal  house,  where  Edmund  de  Langley, 
fifth  son  of  Edward  HI.,  was  bom.  This  same  prince  lies  in 
the  old  Norman  Church  on  the  hill,  by  the  river  side ;  and 
here,  also,  Eichard  11.  was  for  a  short  time  interred.  Abbot's 
Langley  is  chiefly  remarkable  as  the  birthplace  of  Nicholas 
De  Camera,  better  known  as  Nicholas  Breakspeare,  and  who 
becoming  Pope,  as  Adrian  IV.,  is  the  only  Englishman  that 
ever  assumed  the  Papal  dignity.  It  is  said,  when  a  youth  he 
endeavoured  to  obtain  admission  into  the  monastery  of  St. 
Alban's,  but  being  rejected,  on  account  of  his  incomplete 
studies,  he  went  to  Paris  and  applied  himself  to  dirinity.  He 
seems  to  have  well  remembered  the  place  of  his  nativity,  for, 
when  he  attained  the  triple  crown,  he  gave  to  the  Abbot  of 
St.  Alban's  a  grant  of  precedence  over  all  others.  Should  our 
companion  like  a  ramble  with  his  rod  and  line,  he  will 
probably  go  on  to  the  Boxmoor  Station,  two  miles  from  Hemel 
Hempstead,  with  its  agreeable  environs.  Boxmoor  can  only 
boast  of  a  few  houses,  but  the  words  "  Fishery  Inn,"  on  a 
plain  but  rural  wayside  hostel,  will  remind  the  disciple  of 
Izaak  Walton  that  he  is  close  upon  Twowaters — the  junction 
of  the  Bulboum  and  the  Gade,  a  famous  Hertfordshire 
locality  for  fly-fishing.  Here  he  can  await  the  arrival  of  the 
last  train  from  Birmingham,  and,  having  profited  by  the 
exercise  of  the  "gentle  craft,"  return  in  time  to  have  the 
produce  of  his  piscatorial  skill  prepared  for  supper,  or  to 
enjoy  the  more  substantial  chop,  with  its  appendages,  at  one 
of  the  west-end  refectories. 




EiCHJiONB  is  now  rendered  so  promptly  accessible  by  railway, 
that  few  at  all  familiar  with  the  scenery  of  the  Thames 
above  bridge  will  prefer  to  the  rapid  transit  of  the  train  the 
slower  progress  of  the  steamboat.  As  we  intend,  however,  to 
give  an  ample  account  of  those  places  that,  contiguous  to  the 
railway,  are  yet  observable  on  the  south  bank  of  the  river,  our 
description  will  serve  the  same,  whether  the  trip  be  made  by 
land  or  water.  Starting  from  the  terminus  of  the  South- 
western Railway,  Waterloo  Road,  we  speedily  cross  the  open 
tract  of  garden  ground  kno^\^l  as  Battersea  fields,  where,  in 
1604,  was  grown  the  first  asparagus  known  in  England. 
Clapham  old  church,  with  the  rising  terraces  of  villas  and 
trees  seen  beyond,  next  engages  our  attention  to  the  left.  In 
the  opposite  direction  is  Battersea  Church,  containing  a  monu- 
ment, by  Roubiliac,  to  Henry  St.  John  Viscount  Bolingbroke, 
who  was  bom  here;  and  another  to  one  Sir  Edward  "Winter, 
an  East  India  Captain  in  the  reign  of  Chai"les  II.,  who,  among 
other  extraordinary  feats  duly  recorded,  overthrew  sixty 
mounted  Hindoos  single-handed.  Wandsworth,  on  the  banks 
of  the  "  crystal  Wandle,"  which  here  flows  into  the  Thames, 
has  several  oil,  corn,  and  other  mills  worked  by  the  stream. 

58  PUTNEY. 

Nameroos  elegant  villas  hare  been  erected  in  the  neigh- 
bourhood within  the  last  few  years.  The  church  was  rebuilt 
in  1780,  and  the  tower  in  1841;  one  of  Henry  the  Fifth's 
oflScers,  who  served  at  Agincourt,  is  buried  here.  In  addition 
to  several  free-schools,  maintained  by  charitable  bequests,  there 
are  various  places  of  worship  free  for  Nonconformists,  and 
here  assembled,  in  1570,  the  first  congregation  of  Presbyters. 
Putney  was  even  famous  for  its  fisheries  in  the  time  of  the 
Normans,  but  steamboat  traffic  has  long  since  destroyed  its 
reputation.  It  has  been  the  birthplace  of  Cromwell,  the 
blacksmith's  son  and  friend  of  Wolsey ;  and  Gibbon,  the 
historian.  The  old  church,  though  restored  in  1836,  was 
built  in  the  latter  part  of  the  fifteenth  century,  and  exhibits 
several  interesting  brasses  and  tombs.  At  the  Bowling-Green 
House  died  the  celebrated  William  Pitt,  in  1806.  Here  is  the 
"  College  of  Civil  Engineers,"  founded  a  few  years  back,  to 
impart  that  mechanical  and  mathematical  knowledge  so 
essential  in  these  days  of  steam  enterprise.  Putney  is  still 
the  famous  rendezvous  of  those  interested  in  aquatic  sports, 
and  rowing  matches  are  frequent  from  this  point.  The  old 
clumsy  bridge,  built  in  1729,  cost  £24,000,  and  is  yet  a 
profitable  investment.  Wimbledon  and  its  Common,  that  even 
thirteen  hundred  years  ago  was  pronounced  the  most  ancient 
of  English  parishes,  is  the  scene  of  one  of  Caesar's  encamp- 
ments, and  may  be  reached  from  Putney  through  Roehampton. 
Wimbledon  Park,  belonging  to  Earl  Spencer,  is  replete  with 
pretty  detached  spots  of  landscape  beauty,  and  affords  a 
choice  sylvan  ramble  to  the  eastern  portion  of  Richmond 
Park.  On  the  southern  banks  of  the  river,  linked  by  an 
elegant  terrace  of  modem  buildings,  called  the  Castelnau 
Villas,  with  the  Suspension  Bridge  at  Hammersmith,  is 
Barnes.  In  the  churchyard  is  a  monumental  tablet  to  Edward 
Rose,  a  citizen  of  London,  who,  dying  in  1653,  left  £20  to  the 
parish  poor,  on  condition  that  roses  should  be  planted  on  his 
grave  and  annually  preserved.  At  Bam  Elms,  Sir  Francis 
Walsingham,  who  died  here  in  1590,  frequently  entertained 

WEST    SHEEN.  59 

Queen  Elizabeth.  Tonson,  the  bookseller,  and  Cowley,  the 
poet,  also  made  this  their  residence,  and  memorials  of  both 
are  preserved.  Mortlake,  a  mile  further,  and  two  miles  to  the 
east  of  Eichmond,  has  an  ancient  church,  founded  in  the  14th, 
and  rebuilt  in  the  16th  century.  Dr.  John  Dee,  the  astrologer, 
and  Partridge,  a  quondam  shoemaker  and  prophetic  almanack 
concocter,  both  lie  in  the  churchyard.  We  now  discern  the 
woody  glades  which  surround  Richmond,  the  scene  of  90 
many  historical  events,  and  the  haunt  of  pleasant  pic-nic 
parties  from  time  immemorial.  At  West  Sheen,  to  the  left  of 
Mortlake,  and  utterly  destroyed  in  1769  to  form  a  lawn  in 
Richmond  Park,  there  was  formerly  a  Carthusian  Monastery, 
founded  by  Henry  V.,  in  1414,  and  rendered  memorable  as 
the  place  of  refuge  for  Perkin  Warbeck,  and  the  burial  place 
of  James  IV.,  of  Scotland,  after  the  battle  of  Plodden.  An 
obsenatory  now  occupies  the  site.  The  lofty  structure  seen 
across  the  trees  to  the  right  is  the  tower  of  the  Chinese 
Pagoda  in  Kew  Gardens,  rising  163  feet  above  the  surround- 
ing foliage,  and  forming  a  conspicuous  object  for  many  miles 
round.  The  collection  of  rare  exotics  in  these  grotmds, 
unequalled  in  Europe,  is  open  to  public  inspection  daily, 
except  Sundays,  from  twelve  till  dusk,  and  will  equally  repay 
the  visit  of  the  mere  curious  sight-seeker  and  the  more  pro- 
found botanist.  George  III.  frequently  resided  here,  and 
expended  large  sums  at  various  times  in  the  erection  of  a 
palace,  which  George  IV.  pulled  down  in  1828;  and,  in  its 
place,  substituted  a  more  commodious  building,  afterwards 
given  by  William  IV.  to  the  Duke  of  Cumberland,  now  Iving 
of  Hanover.  Gainsborough  and  ZofFany,  two  of  our  most 
celebrated  artists  in  two  very  distinct  styles,  both  lie  in  Kew 
churchyard;  the  church  itself,  built  in  1714,  and  afterwards 
much  enlarged,  presents  nothing  remarkable.  At  a  house  on 
Kew  Green  lived  Sir  Peter  Lely. 

Richmond,  where  either  train  or  steamboat  will  enable  us 
to  stop,  is  just  the  pleasant  point  for  an  excursionist  to  reach 
bent  upon  exercise  and  enjoyment.   The  walks  by  the  margin 


of  the  river,  the  leafy  luxuriance  of  the  park,  the  famed  view 
from  the  hill,  and  the  varied  scenery  of  its  environs,  through 
which  wind  the  prettiest  green  lanes  imaginable,  all  tend  to 
make  this  "  region  of  loveliness"  attractive  beyond  the  day. 
Mouarchs  and  monks  had  a  wonderful  knack  long  ago  of 
discovering  the  prettiest  places  for  a  summer  retreat  round 
London,  and,  accordingly,  we  find  it  was  a  royal  residence  at 
a  very  early  period.  At  Richmond  Green,  where  the  only 
remains  of  the  "  auncient«  Palace  of  Sheen"  is  to  be  found,  in 
a  gateway  at  the  north-east  angle.  Kings  Edward  I.  and  IL 
lived,  and  the  third  King  Edward  died — broken-hearted,  it  is 
said,  for  the  loss  of  his  heroic  son,  "  The  Black  Prince." 
Here,  too,  died  Anne,  Richard  the  Second's  Queen,  who  first 
introduced  the  side-saddle  for  the  benefit  of  succeeding  female 
equestrians.  In  1492  Henry  VH.  gave  a  grand  tournament, 
and  here,  in  1509,  he  died.  Queen  Elizabeth  also  breathed 
her  last  in  this  regal  abode,  which,  after  minor  changes 
connected  with  royalty,  was  finally  demolished  by  George  HI. 
in  1769.  Passing  through  the  town,  which  contains  on  its 
outskirts  several  elegant  villas  of  the  nobility,  we  proceed  up 
the  hill  to  the  Park,  which  embraces  an  area  of  about  2,300 
acres,  and  is  nearly  nine  miles  in  circumference.  It  was 
enclosed  by  Charles  I.  with  a  brick  wall,  and  this  became  one 
of  the  articles  of  his  impeachment.  An  attempted  exclusion 
of  the  pubhc,  in  the  reign  of  George  HI,,  caused  a  spirited 
resistance  from  a  brewer  named  Lewis,  who,  by  an  action  at 
law,  established  the  right  of  footway,  and  since  then  no 
further  encroachment  upon  the  privileges  of  the  public  has 
been  essayed.  The  umbrageous  solitudes  of  this  fine  park, 
and  the  comprehensive  and  beautiful  views  from  its  summit, 
extending  over  the  fertile  vaUey  of  the  Thames,  and  even 
including  the  distant  turrets  of  Windsor  Castle,  have  long 
been  the  theme  of  eulogy  in  book  and  ballad.  At  sunset, 
when  the  far-off  masses  of  foliage  are  sobered  down  by 
twilight,  and  the  river,  catching  the  last  beams  of  the  sinking 
orb,  gleams  through  the  leafy  landscape  like  a  fairy  lake,  in 


which  every  ripple  yields  a  golden  sparkle,  the  scene  is  truly 
enchanting.  In  Richmond  Church,  a  neat  structure,  partly 
ancient  and  partly  modem,  there  are  several  interesting 
memorials  of  the  departed  great.  The  first  that  arrests  atten- 
tion is  a  marble  tablet  on  the  wall,  with  a  medallion  head 
sculptured  on  it,  beneath  which  is  the  following  inscription : — 
"Edmund  Kean — died  May,  1833,  aged  46 — a  memorial 
erected  by  his  son  Charles  John  Kean,  1839."  Here,  too,  is 
the  grave  of  the  poet  James  Thomson,  with  the  Earl  of 
Buchan's  copper  tablet,  the  inscription  on  which  time  has 
almost  made  illegible.  He  was  buried  without  the  wall,  but 
the  church  having  been  enlarged  to  make  room  for  the  organ, 
the  wall  now  passes  right  across  his  coffin,  cutting  the  body, 
as  it  were,  in  twain.  Near  the  communion  table  lies  Mary 
Ann  Yates,  a  celebrated  tragic  actress  and  once  the  Mrs. 
Siddons  of  her  day,  but  now  her  very  name  appears  forgotten. 
In  a  whimsical  epitaph  to  a  Welsh  lawyer,  one  Eobert  Lewes, 
it  is  recorded  to  his  honour,  that  "  he  was  such  a  great  lover 
of  peace  and  quietness,  that  when  a  contention  began  in  his 
body  between  Life  and  Death  he  immediately  gave  up  the 
ghost  to  end  the  dispute."  Among  the  rest  may  be  mentioned, 
tombs  to  the  memory  of  Joseph  Taylor,  the  original  "Hamlet ;" 
Dr.  Moore,  the  author,  and  father  of  the  Corunna-renowned 
General,  Sir  John  Moore;  Gilbert  Wakefield,  the  critic; 
Viscount  Fitzwilliam,  who  founded  the  Museum  at  Cam- 
bridge; and  Edward  Gibson,  an  artist  of  repute,  Richmond 
has  a  theatre,  first  opened,  in  1719,  by  the  facetious  Will 
Penkethman,  and  carried  on  for  some  time  by  Cibber;  it  was 
the  scene  of  many  of  Kean's  triumphs  in  the  mimic  art,  but 
latterly  it  has  been  badly  managed  and  worse  frequented. 
Near  it  is  "  Rosedale  House,"  where  Thomson  lived  and  died 
(August  22nd,  1748),  and  having  lately  become  the  residence 
of  the  Earl  of  Shaftesbury,  it  is  known  as  "  Thomson's  Villa." 
Many  relics  of  the  poet,  and  some  manuscript  portions  of 
"  The  Seasons,"  in  his  own  handwriting,  are  here  carefully 
preserved.    Richmond  Bridge  was  biiilt  in  1777. 


Petersham,  reached  by  a  pleasant  rural  lane  leading  from 
the  hiD,  is  delightfully  situated  in  the  valley  beneath,  and  has 
some  fine  springs  of  water,  which  are  duly  taken  advantage  of 
by  a  Hydropathic  establishment  recently  formed.  Ham  House 
was  once  a  royal  domain,  where  James  I.,  Charles  L,  Charles 
II.,  and  James  IL,  the  latter  by  compulsion,  occauionally 
resided.  About  a  mile  west  from  Richmond  is  Twickenham, 
near  which  is  Twickenham  Ait,  or  Eel-Pie-Island,  consecrated 
from  time  immemorial  to  the  votaries  of  that  esteemed  delicacy. 
Pope's  Villa,  now  demolished  and  having  a  number  of  villas 
on  its  site,  has  long  associated  the  poet's  name  with  the  placa 
In  the  village  church  may  be  seen  liis  tomb,  with  a  Latin 
inscription  written  by  his  friend  Warburton,  Bishop  of  Glou- 
cester, and  a  more  characteristic  one  beneath,  written  by 
the  bard  himself.  The  once  celebrated  actress,  "  Kitty  Clive," 
is  also  buried  in  this  sequestered  church;  she  died  in  1785, 
aged  75.  The  almshouses  of  the  Carpenters'  Company  occupy 
a  prominent  situation  beyond.  Nearly  a  mile  further  is 
Strawberry  Hill,  where  the  celebrated  Horace  Walpole 
collected  the  famous  assortment  of  valuables  and  curiosities, 
which,  under  the  direction  of  the  late  Earl  of  Waldegrave, 
were  consigned  to  the  hammer  of  George  Robins,  and  dis- 
persed among  those  private  individuals  who  were  wealthy 
enough  to  become  possessed  of  the  varied  contents  of  this 
gothic  hall. 

Teddington,  two  miles  further,  is  well  known  to  the  angling 
fraternity,  and  here  the  first  "lock"  is  encountered  in  the 
upward  progress  along  the  Thames.  It  is  worth  while  to  turn 
aside  from  the  road,  and  have  a  look  at  the  old  church,  which, 
though  recently  modernised,  presents  in  its  south  aisle  a 
specimen  of  architectural  stability  of  800  years  back.  "  Peg 
Woffington,"  the  clever  actress  and  beautiful  woman,  whose 
history  is  of  itself  a  romance,  was  here  buried  in  1720,  and 
Hi&re  are  other  monuments  of  remunerative  interest  and 

Hampton  Court,  to  which  another  two  miles  will  bring  us, 


requires  a  volume  exclusively  devoted  to  its  attractions  to 
render  them  due  justice,  but  in  default  of  a  professed  '■^  Guide" 
our  account — ^though  necessarily  compressed — will  be  found 
sufScient  to  prevent  any  of  its  "Lions"  being  overlooked  from 
a  want  of  their  being  enumerated.  The  situation  of  Hampton 
Court,  which  stands  on  the  north  bank  of  the  Thames,  about 
twelve  miles  from  London,  is  so  happily  described  by  Pope, 
that  we  caimot  resist  quoting  the  favorite  passage: — 

"  Close  by  those  meads  for  ever  crowned  with  flowers. 
Where  Thames  with  pride  survey's  his  lising  towers, 
There  stands  a  structure  of  majestic  ftame. 
Which  from  the  neighbouring  Hampton  takes  its  name  ; 
Here  Britain's  statesmen  oft  the  fall  foredoom 
Of  foreign  tyrants  and  of  nymphs  at  home ; 
Here  thou  great  Anna,  whom  tliree  realms  obey. 
Dost  sometimes  coimsel  take,  and  sometimes— tea." 

In  summing  up  the  points  of  its  early  history,  we  may  briefly 
state  that  in  the  thirteenth  century  the  manor  of  Hampden 
was  vested  in  the  Knights  of  St.  John  of  Jerusalem.  Cardinal 
Wolsey,  its  illustrious  foimder,  was  the  last  of  the  enlightened 
churchmen  of  old,  whose  munificence  patronised  that  style  of 
building;  which,  originating  with  the  ecclesiastics,  seemed  to 
end  in  his  fall.  He  is  supposed  to  have  furnished  the  designs, 
and  having  been  commenced  in  1515,  the  building,  when 
finished,  was  in  so  magnificent  a  style,  that  it  created  great 
envy  at  court.  The  banquets  and  masques,  so  prevalent  in 
the  age  of  Henry  VHI,,  were  nowhere  more  magnificently 
ordered  than  here;  and  however  vast  the  establishment  of 
the  Cardinal,  it  could  not  have  been  more  than  sufiicient 
icx  the  accommodation  of  his  train  of  guests.  Numerous 
sovereigns  since  that  time  made  it  their  temporary  abode, 
and  the  last  who  resided  here  were  George  H.  and  his  Queen, 
since  which  period  various  members  of  the  com-t  have 
occupied  the  apartments,  the  crown  reserving  the  right  of 
resuming  possession.  At  present  about  700  of  decayed 
gentlemen  and  gentlewomen,  with  their  servants,    occupy 


olSSces  connected  with  the  establishment,  to  which  they  are 
recommended  by  the  Lord  Chamberlain.  The  Lion  gate, 
which  fronts  the  entrance  to  Bushey  Park,  an  appurtenance 
granted  to  Queen  Adelaide,  is  the  chief  avenue;  and,  con- 
tinuing through  the  Wilderness,  by  a  path  overshadow^ed 
vfith  lofty  trees,  we  find  ourselves  by  the  side  of  the  palace, 
in  firont  of  which  extends  a  long  walk  ornamented  with 
parterres,  an  exotic  shrubbery,  and  a  spacious  fountain  in  the 
centre.  The  grand  east  front  extends  330  feet,  and  the  grand 
south  front  328  feet,  from  the  designs  of  Sir  Christopher 
Wren.  The  grand  staircase  and  the  guard  chamber  lead  to 
the  picture  galleries,  to  which  so  many  cheap  catologues 
furnish  descriptive  guides,  that  our  enumeration  of  their 
magnificent  contents  is  unnecessary.  Suflice  it  to  say  the 
paintings  are  about  1,000  in  number.  Retracing  our  steps  to 
the  middle  court,  we  may  observe,  under  the  archway,  the 
flight  of  steps  leading  to  Wolsey's  HaU.  It  is  106  feet  long, 
40  feet  wide,  and  illuminated  by  thirteen  windows,  each 
fifteen  feet  from  the  ground.  On  one  of  the  panes  of  the  bay 
window  at  the  end,  extending  nearly  to  the  floor,  the  young 
Earl  of  Surrey  wTote  his  lines  to  the  fair  Geraldine.  On  each 
side  the  walls  are  hung  with  tapestry  of  the  most  costly 
material  and  rarest  workmanship,  said  to  have  formed  a 
portion  of  the  gifts  interchanged  between  Henry  and  Francis, 
at  the  celebrated  "  Field  of  the  Cloth  of  Gold."  In  the  centre 
of  the  dais  there  is  a  doorway  leading  to  the  withdrawal 
room.  The  beautiful  gardens  in  front  of  the  palace  have  been 
repeatedly  the  admiration  of  all  ■I'isitors.  They  were  laid  out 
by  William  III.,  in  the  Dutch  style,  with  canal  and  water- 
coiirses,  and  the  compass  and  shears  were  industriously 
employed  in  making  birds,  beasts,  and  reptiles,  out  of  yew, 
holly,  and  privet.  The  private  gardens  extend  from  the  sides 
of  the  palace  to  the  banks  of  the  river,  and  contain,  besides 
some  remarkably  fine  orange  trees,  many  of  them  in  full 
bearing,  a  fine  oak  nearly  40  feet  in  circumference,  and  an 
ancient  elm  called  "  Eiing  Charles's  swing."    The  large  space 


of  ground  on  the  opposite  side  of  the  palace  is  called  "  The 
Wilderness"  and  was  planted  with  shrubs  by  order  of  William 
and  Mary.  Most  of  the  walks  are  completely  overshadowed, 
and  on  a  hot  summer  day  a  stroll  through  these  umbrageous 
paths  is  exceedingly  inviting.  In  this  portion  of  the  grounds 
is  situated  the  Maze,  so  constructed  that  all  the  paths 
apparently  leading  to  the  centre  turn  oif  to  a  more  distant 
part,  and  involve  the  inquisitive  adventurer  in  constant  per- 
plexity. Though  we  are  not  quite  sure  that  the  revelation 
does  not  spoil  the  chief  sport,  the  secret  of  success  in  thread- 
ing this  miniature  labyrinth  is,  that  after  the  first  turning  to 
the  left  the  right  hand  should  be  kept  towards  the  fence  the 
whole  of  the  remaining  way.  The  greatest  curiosity,  however, 
is  perhaps  the  famous  Vine,  which,  sheltered  and  nurtured  in 
a  hot-house,  is  110  feet  long,  and,  at  three  feet  from  the  root, 
is  27  inches  in  circumference.  It  bears  from  two  to  three 
thousand  bunches  of  the  black  Hamburg  grape  in  the  season. 
We  may  now  mention  the  arrangements  made  for  the  recep- 
tion of  visitors. 

The  State  Apartments,  Pablic  Gardens,  and  Picture  Gal- 
leries are  open  daily  (Fridays  excepted),  throughout  the  year, 
from  10  till  dusk ;  and  on  Sundays  after  2  p.m.  The  Public 
Gardens  have  generally  a  military  band  in  attendance,  and  a 
small  fee  is  expected  by  the  gardener  for  exhibiting  the 
orangery  and  the  vine. 

We  hence  recommend  the  excursionist  to  proceed  across 
Kingston  Bridge,  erected  in  1827,  to  Kingston,  a  distance  of 
not  much  more  than  two  miles,  and  take  a  train  homeward 
by  the  South- Western  Kailway.  Kingston  Church  was  the 
scene  of  the  coronation  of  many  of  our  Saxon  kings,  who 
here  held  their  court,  and  the  stone  on  which  the  ceremony 
took  place  is  still  preserved  near  the  Courts  of  Assize.  A 
striking  illustration  of  the  creative  powers  of  a  railroad  is 
manifested  by  the  rise  of  a  new  town  by  the  station,  called 
Surbiton,  or  lOngston-on-Eailway.  Although  this  was,  only 
a  few  years  back,  a  mere  piece  of  waete  ground,  it  is  now  a 

66  KIHG8TON. 

populous  and  thriving  -settlement,  with  a  fashionable  assem- 
blage of  shops  continued  along  one  wide  street,  from  the 
Railway  Hotel  to  a  considerable  distance  down  the  Eongston- 
road.  Near  this  spot  took  place  the  last  struggle  of  the 
Royalists  in  favor  of  Charles  the  First,  who  was  then  a 
prisoner  in  Carisbrooke  Castle ;  but,  with  that  fatality  which 
seemed  to  attend  all  their  efforts,  the  cavaliers  were  repulsed 
with  great  slaughter,  Lord  Francis  Villiers  slain,  and  the 
Earl  of  Holland  captured,  with  others  of  the  nobility.  Select- 
ing an  easy  seat  in  the  compartment  of  a  comfortable  carriage, 
we  shall  be  now  borne  back  in  an  hour  to  the  terminus  at 
Waterloo-road,  whence  we  started,  and  this  rapid  progression, 
ailer  our  agreeable  sauntering  through  the  meadows  and  bye- 
paths,  will,  to  our  thinking  and  experience,  be  a  very  pleasant 
mode  of  terminating  a  very  pleasant  pUgrimage,  during 
which  we  trust  you  have  found  in  us  a  very  communicative 



The  South- Western  Bailway  is  a  very  eligible  medium  for 
excursionists.  There  is  scarcely  a  station  from  which  the 
rambler  can  go  forth,  and  fail  to  find  something  in  the  way  of 
the  beautiful  and  the  antique.  Beyond  Kingston,  the  road  to 
which  embraces  the  chief  places  described  in  the  previous 
excursion,  there  is  a  delightful  range  of  country,  full  of 
inexhaustible  attractions.  Thames  Ditton,  and  the  Moulseys, 
East  and  West,  are  capital  spots  for  a  quiet  day's  fishing,  and, 
as  such,  are  much  frequented  in  the  season ;  the  former  is  as 
pleasantly  situated  by  the  margin  of  the  river  as  poet  or 
painter  could  desire,  and  the  latter  are  thus  named  from  their 
position  at  the  junction  of  the  Mole  with  the  Thames.  There 
is  a  wooden  bridge  connecting  the  village  with  Hampton,  and 
on  Moulsey  Hurst — once  the  arena  for  combats  pugilistic — the 
Hampton  races  now  take  place.  A  mile  from  the  Claremont 
station  is  Esher,  dwindled  into  comparative  insignificance 
compared  with  the  time  when  Cardinal  Wolsey  retreated 
here,  to  the  palace  of  the  Bishops  of  Winchester,  having,  after 
his  disgrace,  been  compelled  by  the  king  to  retire  from  the  court. 
This  stately  structure,  situated  on  the  banks  of  the  Mole,  here 
widening  to  a  goodly  stream,  was  built  by  "William  Wainflete, 
who  was  consecrated  Bishop  of  Winchester  in  1447,  and  was 
probably  by  him  annexed  to  that  see.  A  picturesque  well  by 
the  roadside,  called  "  Wolsey's  Well,"  and  a  castellated  turret, 
known  as  "The  Water- Gate  House,"  are  the  only  visible 
t  2 

68  CltABEMOKT. 

indications  of  his  former  residence  in  this  magnificent  abode. 
At  Sandon  Farm,  near  the  station,  may  be  traced  the  ruins  of 
an  old  priory,  founded  in  the  reign  of  Henry  II.  Esher 
Church  is  a  small  but  neat  structure,  with  a  curious  bit  of 
antiquity  in  the  belfry,  which  contains  a  bell  said  to  have 
been  brought  hither  from  St.  Domingo  by  Sir  Francis  Drake. 
The  walks  in  the  vicinity  are  delicionsly  pastoral.  To  the 
east  of  Esher  is  Claremont,  where  the  Princess  Charlotte  lived 
and  died,  and  where  her  Majesty  has  frequently  retreated  of 
late  from  the  pomp  and  pageantry  of  the  court.  Its  former 
history  is  sufficiently  curious  to  be  given.  Sir  John  Vanbrugh, 
the  author-architect,  first  built  a  house  here  for  himself,  but, 
with  a  strange  perversity  of  taste,  it  was  erected  in  the  lower 
grounds,  where  there  was  no  possibility  of  a  prospect.  Sir 
John  soon  got  tired  of  his  new  dwelling,  and  gladly  parted 
with  it  to  Thomas  Holies  Pelham,  Earl  of  Clare,  who 
made  some  extensive  and  judicious  alterations.  A  purchase 
of  2,000  extra  acres  of  ground  was  skilfully  employed  in  the 
formation  of  a  park,  on  a  mount  in  which  was  raised  a 
castellated  building  that  he  entitled  Clare-mount,  and  this 
appellation  it  has  since  borne.  The  next  purchaser  was  Lord 
Clive,  the  conqueror  of  India,  and  under  his  direction  the 
famous  "  Capability  Browne " — who  gained  this  odd  addition 
to  his  patronymic  from  a  peculiar  talent  he  had  of  turning 
grounds  that  had  any  "  capability"  to  the  best  advantage — 
demolished  the  old  structure,  and  raised  another,  at  a  cost  of 
£100,000.  After  Lord  Clive's  decease,  Claremont  passed 
successively  into  the  possession  of  Viscount  Galway,  the  Earl 
of  Tyrconnel,  and  Charles  Kose  Ellis  Esq.,  from  whom  it  was 
purchased  by  government,  in  1816,  at  a  cost  of  £69,000,  to 
form  the  country  residence  of  Prince  Leopold,  now  King  of 
the  Belgians.  The  mansion  has  latterly  become,  by  one  of 
those  strange  caprices  of  destiny  that  beset  crowned  beads, 
the  refuge  of  Louis  Phillippe  and  the  exiled  Royal  Family  of 
France,  who  have  lived  here,  in  comparative  seclusion,  since 
the  memorable  revolution  of  Februarv,  1848. 

WAI.TOX.  69 

Crossing  Walton  Heath,  the  course  of  the  line  brings  ns  in 
the  vicinity  of  Oatlands,  the  seat  of  the  late  Duke  of  York, 
and  afterwards  of  Lord  Francis  Egerton.  App's  Court, 
adjacent,  was  another  of  Wolsey's  residences ;  the  house  he 
inhabited  has  long  since  disappeared,  but  a  dove-cote,  and  the 
wall  of  his  garden,  with  some  trees  planted  by  himself,  still 
remain  to  mark  the  spot  where  he  loved  to  meditate  over  his 
chequered  fortunes.  Walton  is  decidedly  one  of  those  stations 
where  it  is  worth  while  to  alight  and  turn  towards  the  village, 
on  the  speculation  of  finding  a  pleasant  occupation  for  a  spare 
half-hour.  The  old  church,  dedicated  to  St.  Mary,  contains 
some  attractive  monuments  of  considerable  antiquity,  and  a 
"  scold's  bridle"  is  shown,  which  was  used  to  curb  those 
gossips'  tongues  that,  unlike  the  "  course  of  true  love,"  never 
did  "  run  smooth."  In  the  chancel  is  a  monument  to  John 
Selwyn,  a  keeper  of  Oatlands,  who  is  represented  on  a  stag's 
back,  plunging  his  sword  into  the  animal's  throat.  This  is 
said  to  have  been  done  in  the  presence  of  Queen  Elizabeth,  as 
he  sprang  from  the  back  of  the  horse,  which  he  was  riding 
at  full  speed,  on  to  that  of  the  stag.  William  Lilly,  the 
astrologer,  who  lived  at  Hersham,  close  by,  is  also  interred 
here.  The  style  of  architecture  of  this  ancient  edifice  is 
manifestly  belonging  to  a  very  remote  period.  The  old  bridge 
that  spans  the  Thames  was  erected  in  1687.  Here,  at  a  place 
called  "  Coway,"  Cassar  is  said  to  have  attempted  crossing  the 
river,  and  some  wooden  stakes,  shod  with  iron  and  16  feet 
long,  have  been  dug  up  in  the  neighbourhood,  and  cited  as  a 
proof  of  the  successful  opposition  made  by  the  ancient  Britons, 
under  Cassivelaunus,  to  repel  the  eftbrts  of  the  Romans. 

Weyhridge  is  another  choice  spot  to  alight,  fertile  in  quiet 
nooks  for  angling,  and  abounding  in  picturesque  scenery. 
Close  to  the  station  is  "  The  Hand  and  Spear"  Tavern,  with  a 
sort  of  half-gotliic,  half-Swiss  style  about  it,  and  some  exten- 
sive grounds  at  the  back,  fitted  up  with  every  facility  of 
diversion  to  wile  away  a  summer's  afternoon.  The  village  is 
close  to  it,  but  presents  nothing  remarkable,  not  even  except- 


ing  the  chnrch,  which,  though  old,  has  only  a  few  brasses  of 
little  interest,  and  a  sculpture,  by  Chantrey,  to  the  Duchess  of 
York,  representing  the  deceased  engaged  in  prayer.  There  is 
a  monument  besides  to  perpetuate  her  worth,  erected  on  the 
green,  in  the  shape  of  a  column.  The  Basingstoke  Canal  and 
the  Eiver  Wey  form  their  junction  at  this  point  with  the 
Thames,  and,  as  they  heighten  the  charms  of  the  landscape, 
also  present  great  attractions  to  the  lovers  of  fishing,  who  are 
constantly  to  be  seen  testing  their  skill  along  the  margin. 
Those  expert  at  pedestrianizing  will  have  a  rare  treat  if  they 
cross  the  Hne  from  Weybridge  Station  and  proceed  to  Byfleet, 
two  miles  onward.  It  is  a  primitive  looking  village,  with  an 
old-fashioned  church,  constructed  from  the  simple  materials 
of  rough  stones  and  flint.  The  ^aews  are  delightful  as  yon 
proceed,  and  the  country  round  exhibits  the  highest  state  of 
agricultural  cultivation.  Making  direct  for  St.  George's  Hill, 
there  is  a  splendid  prospect  from  the  summit,  encompassing 
"Windsor,  Chertsey,  Hampton,  and  the  glistening  rivers  that 
sparkle  through  the  landscape  nearer.  Relucta'-tly  quitting 
tliis  elevated  region — and  it  requires  a  desperate  degree  of 
resolution — we  descend  into  the  village  of  Cobham,  on  the 
other  side  thereof,  having  a  pleasant  location  on  the  Mole, 
and  an  abundant  supply  from  its  waters  of  carp,  pike,  and 
trout,  most  plentifully  found  in  that  portion  of  the  stream 
which  flows  through  the  park.  Hence  we  may  stroll  to 
Ockham,  and  have  a  look  at  the  old  church,  built  in  1290, 
and  Ockham  Park,  the  seat  of  Earl  Lovelace,  who,  himself  a 
descendant  from  the  metaphysician  Locke,  has  ftirther  honor 
in  his  marriage  with  Ada,  the  daughter  of  Byron.  Still 
onward,  and  Wisley  and  Piprford  will  be  found  worthy  a 
visit,  and  Woking,  with  its  ancient  mansion  of  Sutton  Place, 
built  by  Sir  Richard  Weston,  in  1530,  and  oft-times  visited 
by  Queen  Elizabeth.  The  church  is  venerable,  and  the 
embattled  tower  gives  it  a  striking  appearance.  Near  here, 
on  a  spot  formerly  called  "  Aldeburj',"  may  be  seen  the  ruins 
of  Newark  Priory,  founded  in  the  time  of  Richard  Coeur  de 


Lion.  The  portion  that  remains  was  evidently  the  old 
church.  Leaving  the  excursionist  to  choose  whether  he  shall 
hence  go  on  to  Guildford  or  Woking — either  way  about  three 
miles— we  return  to  Weybridge,  and  take  our  rambler  with 
OS  on  another  pleasant  pilgrimage  of  three  miles,  in  the 
opposite  direction,  to  Chertsey. 

Chertsey — the  very  name  rings  in  the  ear  like  a  sound  from 
the  far-off  past — is  as  old  as  the  days  of  the  ancient  Britons, 
and  probably  was  one  of  their  principal  places.  Soon  after 
the  conversion  of  the  Saxons  from  Paganism,  in  666,  a 
Benedictine  Monastery  was  founded  here  by  Frithwold,  a 
petty  prince  of  Surrey,  and  by  him  richly  endowed.  In  the 
original  charter  it  is  written,  "  I  beseech  those  whose  names 
are  annexed  to  subscribe  themselves  witnesses  that  I,  Frith- 
wald,  who  am  the  giver,  together  with  the  Abbot  Erkenwald, 
on  account  of  my  ignorance  of  letters,  have  expressed  with  the 
sign  of  the  Holy  Cross."  It  is  from  this  pretty  evident  that 
princes  in  those  days  had  somewhat  of  Jack  Cade's  antipathy 
to  those  who  could  "read,  write,  and  cast  accompt,"  and 
therefore  they  also  "  made  their  mark,  like  a  simple,  plain- 
dealing,  honest  man."  The  Danes,  who  were  the  general 
snappers-up  of  unconsidered  trifles,  pillaged  the  abbey  in 
1009,  killed  the  abbot  and  monks,  and  laid  the  whole  build- 
ing desolate ;  but  being  afterwards  rebuilt  by  Egbert,  King  of 
Kent,  it  became  more  magnificently  embellished  than  ever, 
and  was  one  of  the  most  important  monasteries  in  the 
kingdom.  Henry  VI.  was  buried  here,  under  a  sumptuous 
mausoleum,  but  the  body  was  exhumed  in  1504,  by  Henry 
Vn.,  and  conveyed  with  great  pomp  first  to  Windsor,  and 
afterwards  to  Westminster  Abbey.  It  is  useless  to  look  now 
for  any  vestige  of  its  former  grandeur;  all  that  remains  is  a 
part  of  its  wall,  forming  the  boundary  of  an  orchard,  and  part 
of  an  archway  is  still  visible  on  the  north  side  of  the  town. 
In  the  centre  of  the  town  is  the  church,  rebuilt  in  1808,  but 
having  a  portion  of  the  old  chancel  and  tower  remaining. 
Even  60  late  as  the  year  1814,  and  occasionally  since,  the 


curfew  has  been  tolled  here,  from  IVIichaelmas  to  Lady  Day, 
the  day  of  the  month  being  indicated  during  the  time  of 
ringing.  A  handsome  stone  bridge  of  seven  arches  was 
erected,  in  1786,  across  the  Thames,  connecting  the  county  of 
Surrey  with  Middlesex.  At  a  house  in  Guildford  Street, 
formerly  distinguished  as  the  Porch  House,  lived  Abraham 
Cowley,  the  poet,  who  has  perpetuated,  in  prose  and  verse, 
his  love  for  this  seclusion  in  a  hundred  quaint  prettinesses. 
Beneath  the  window  of  the  room  in  which  he  died  (July  28th, 
1667)  is  a  tablet  thus  appealing  to  the  sympathies  of  the 
passers-by: — "Here  the  last  accents  flowed  from  Cowley's 
tongue."  A  pretty  summer  house  that  he  built,  and  a  seat 
under  a  sycamore  tree,  both  mentioned  in  his  poems,  were 
existing  till  the  middle  of  the  last  century.  After  the  excur- 
sionist has  refreshed  his  physical  energies  at  one  of  the  many 
excellent  inns  that  here  abound,  by  all  means  let  him  ascend 
St  Anne's  Hill,  about  a  mile  out  of  the  town,  and  he  shall 
find  himself,  at  the  summit,  elevated  some  250  feet  above  the 
ocean  level,  with  a  glorious  panorama  round  about  him  of  the 
finest  parts  of  the  river  between  Richmond  and  Windsor. 
There  is  a  spring  at  the  top,  that  summer's  heat  and  winter's 
cold  alike  prove  unable  to  dry  up  or  freeze.  The  mansion  on 
the  southern  slope  of  the  hill  was  once  the  residence  of 
Charles  James  Fox,  the  statesman,  to  whom  a  cenotaph  has 
been  erected  in  the  church.  From  Chertsey  he  can  now  pro- 
ceed to  the  Woking  Station,  an  agreeable  walk  of  five  miles, 
and  so  return  by  railway,  or  cross  the  bridge,  and  go  through 
Lakham  on  to  Staines,  a  distance  of  four  miles :  thence  one  of 
the  coaches  that  still  ply  on  that  comparatively  deserted 
road  win  bring  him  back  to  town. 

The  excursion  we  have  indicated,  with  judicious  manage- 
ment of  stoppages,  need  not  occupy  more  than  a  day,  but 
should  the  finny  fraternity  of  the  streams  tempt  an  angler  to 
loiter  on  his  path,  it  will  be  found  an  excellent  plan  to  stop  at 
Chertsey  for  the  night,  and  try  his  chance  among  the  famous 
jack  and  perch  of  Shepperton  in  the  morning. 



Our  next  trip  out  of  town  into  Surrey,  though  less  extensive, 
will  not  be  found  less  interesting.  Having  got  a  ticket  of 
admission  to  the  Dulwich  Gallery,*  take  an  omnibus  to  Cam- 
berwell  Green,  and  be  put  down  at  the  "  Father  Redcap,"  a 
hostel  that  in  the  last  century  stood  far  away  in  the  fields, 
without  a  habitation  within  ken.  Cross  the  Green  and  turn 
down  Grove  Lane  to  the  right,  a  thoroughfare  at  the  back  of 
Camberwell  Grove,  now  occupied  by  a  handsome  range  of 
modem  houses,  commanding  a  retrospective  view  over  the 
smoke-enshrouded  buildings  of  the  southern  suburbs.  It  was 
here  that  tradition  alleges  BarnweU  killed  his  uncle,  but  the 
crime  of  the  city  apprentice,  immortalised  by  Lillo,  has  not 
even  had  the  assistance  of  a  ghost  to  indicate  the  precise  spot 
of  the  murder.  At  the  end  of  this  lane  there  is  a  steep 
declivity,  where  the  road  winds  round  to  the  valley  beneath, 
and  the  prospect  that  here  comes  with  startling  suddenness  on 
the  eye  of  the  pedestrian  is  a  pleasant  surprise  after  the 
monotonous  lines   of  houses  which  have  hitherto  been  our 

•  These  tickets  are  gratis,  and  easily  obtainable  of  the  chief  Printsellers, 
being  merely  rendered  necessary  to  ensure  the  respectability  of  the  visitors, 
though  it  is  probable  before  long  tliat  even  this  slight  condition  will  be 
dispensed  with.  Ackerman,  Strand,  and  Colnaghi,  Pall  Mall,  will  both 
supply  them.  The  gallery  is  open  every  week  day,  except  Friday,  from 
10  till  5  in  the  summer  months,  and  11  till  3  during  the  winter. 


boundary  right  and  left.  You  are  in  an  instant  transported, 
as  if  by  magic,  from  the  confines  of  the  town  to  the  open 
country,  and  though  a  few  cottages  have,  within  the  last  year 
or  two,  been  built  at  the  foot  of  the  hill,  there  is  yet  enough 
rurality  about  it  to  make  it  grateful  to  the  vision  of  one 
satiated  with  street  scenes  and  street  bustle.  The  vale  of 
Peckham  lies  in  the  foreground,  with  beyond  an  ample  tract 
of  pasture  ground,  veined  with  hedgerows,  and  an  undulating 
country  at  the  back,  wherein  ivied  cottages  and  clustering 
elms  knot  themselves  into  picturesque  groups  afar  oif.  The 
road  winding  to  the  left  brings  us  to  Goose  Green,  a  favourite 
spot  for  academies,  and  a  quarter  of  a  mile  further  is  Peckham 
Rye,  which  at  first  view  appears  to  consist  of  a  score  of  Uttle 
shops  and  stuccoed  dwellings,  a  tavern  or  two,  a  large  pond, 
and  ducks  and  dogs  innumerable.  Peckham,  though  recently 
much  enlarged  by  terraces  and  other  symptoms  of  metro- 
politan extension,  was  not  long  ago  as  quietly  rural  as  if  four 
hundred  miles,  instead  of  four,  had  been  its  distance  from 
town.  Here  are  tea-gardens — so  called,  of  course,  because  tea 
is  never  called  for  within  them — that,  garnished  with  flowers 
and  seats  amid  the  shrubberies,  offer  no  despicable  attractions 
to  the  city  artisan,  who  can  thus  within  omnibus  range 
breathe  a  fresher  atmosphere,  and  have  some  wholesome 
notion  of  real  country  air.  Hardly  a  mile  from  the  Eye, 
reached  by  the  road  exactly  opposite  to  that  by  which  we 
came,  is  Nunhead  Cemetery,  occupying  the  slope  of  a  hill 
which  is  crowned  upon  the  top  by  a  neat  chapel  for  perform- 
ing the  funereal  rites  of  the  Established  Church.  Adjoining  is 
a  plainer  edifice  for  the  use  of  Dissenters.  The  grounds  are 
well  disposed,  though  they  cannot  be  said  to  rival  the 
cemeteries  of  Kensal  Green  and  Norwood.  From  the 
eminence  adjoining  there  is  a  good  prospect  of  London,  and 
the  pathway  to  Forest  Hill,  and  round,  under  the  South- 
Eastern  Eailway,  to  New  Cross  and  Deptford,  is  not  to  be 
despised  by  those  whom  time  will  not  permit  to  enjoy  a  more 
excorsiTe  ramble. 


From  Peckham  we  can  strike  across  the  hills,  where  one  of 
the  old  Semaphores,  or  wooden  telegraphs,  still  remains — a 
disused  link  of  telegraphic  communication  between  the 
Admiralty  and  Portsmouth — and  get  to  Dulwich  through  the 
meadows.  Just  past  the  neat  village,  plentifully  besprinkled 
with  the  villas  of  metropolitan  merchants,  is  Dulwich  College, 
founded,  in  1619,  by  Edward  AUeyne,  the  actor,  who,  as  one 
of  Shakspere's  contemporaiies,  was  a  popular  representative 
of  most  of  the  characters  in  his  plays.  It  is  a  building  of  the 
Elizabethan  school,  and  was  erected  from  the  designs  of 
Inigo  Jones.  In  1811  a  new  wing  was  added  for  the  recep- 
tion of  the  pictures  bequeathed  by  Sir  Francis  Bourgeois,  and 
these  include  some  of  the  finest  specimens  extant  of  the  works 
of  the  old  Flemish  and  Spanish  masters.  Those  by  Cuyp, 
Kembrandt,  and  Murillo  are  highly  estimated,  and  there  are 
several  by  our  own  Sir  Joshua  Reynolds.  An  inspection  of 
the  pictorial  treasures  herein  contained  will  prove  a  desirable 
and  gratifying  hour's  occupation.  A  chapel,  library,  and 
school,  for  gratuitous  instruction,  are  attached,  and  the  warden 
must  be  the  same  name  as  the  founder,  a  condition  which  has 
occasionally  involved  some  perplexity  in  its  fulfilment.  The 
environs  are  replete  with  pastoral  beauty,  and  an  immense 
quantity  of  hay  is  obtained  from  this  district.  Pursuing  the 
road  before  us,  and  skirting  the  borders  of  some  fine  planta- 
tions— well  known  to  pic-nic  parties  from  town — we  pass 
Penge  Common,  where  the  Watermen's  Almshouses  form  a 
conspicuous  object  in  their  isolated  position.  They  were 
erected,  by  subscription,  for  aged  watermen  and  lightermen, 
in  1840.  Nothing  can  be  more  charmingly  sylvan,  or  less 
suggestive  of  the  approximate  city,  than  the  walk  across  the 
hill  to  Sydenham,  which  reveals  a  varied  and  expansive  pros- 
pect over  Kent  as  we  approach  its  precincts.  The  town  lies 
in  the  hollow,  and  has  a  number  of  opulent  residents,  whose 
elegant  mansions  contribute  to  diversify  the  scene.  On  the 
common  has  recently  been  built  a  handsome  church,  and 
along  by  the  railway  several  stately  villas  have  been  called  int© 


being  by  the  increased  facilities  of  transit  thus  afforded,  and  the 
acknowledged  salubrity  of  the  air.  The  Anerley  Gardens,  a 
short  distance  from  the  station,  are  prettily  disposed,  with 
every  imaginable  device  to  make  a  visitor  prolong  his  stay. 
The  old  Croydon  Canal  runs  at  the  end  of  the  grounds,  and 
is  kept  well  stocked  with  fish ;  there  are  few  resorts  more 
calculated  than  this  to  afford  innocent  recreation  and  healthy 

Unless  the  train  is  taken  from  Anerley  we  may  take  the 
rambler  on  with  us  some  two  miles  to  the  west  across  the 
country  to  Norwood,  a  famous  haunt  for  gipsies  and  pleasure 
parties,  though  the  former  have  become  nearly  extinct. 
Beidah  Spa  is  well  known  to  summer  excui'sionists  as  a 
delightful  destination  for  a  day's  jaunt,  having  archery  and 
music  to  increase  the  general  hilarity,  as  well  as  verdant 
lawns  and  flowery  arbours,  where  the  "  creature  comforts" 
may  be  most  delectably  administered.  The  mineral  spring, 
discovered  in  1827,  may  be  tasted  by  those  disposed  to  try  its 
beneficial  effects ;  it  has  a  twang  with  it  like  what  we  should 
fancy  an  infusion  of  Congreve  matches  would  produce.  The 
scenery  round  Norwood  is  as  wild  and  romantic  as  though 
the  sound  of  a  Brixton  omnibus  never  disturbed  the  tran- 
quillity of  the  region,  and  botanists  and  entomologists  can  find 
in  the  woods  hereabout  some  choice  specimens  for  their 
cabinets.  Norwood  Cemetery,  laid  out  in  1839,  at  a  cost  of 
£80,000,  occupies  a  very  eligible  position,  on  the  sloping 
devation  of  a  hill  near  the  roads  leading  to  Tulse  Hill  and 
Brixton.  It  encloses  a  space  of  nearly  fifty  acres,  and  the 
brick  wall  which  surrounds  the  Cemetery  is  above  a  mile  and 
a  half  in  length.  Two  chapels,  one  Episcopal  and  the  other  for 
Dissenters,  are  built  in  the  gothic  style  at  the  highest  point, 
and  hence  there  is  a  fine  prospect  before  us,  reaching  from 
the  park  immediately  beneath,  which  formerly  belonged  to 
Lord  Chancellor  Thurlow,  to  Heme  Hill,  and  the  towers  of 
Westminster  Abbey  and  St.  Paul's.  Under  the  cloisters  of 
the  chapel  are  the  catacombs,  estimated  to  contain  2,000 


coffins;  thej  are  well  ventilated  and  lighted,  and  perfectly 
dry.  On  each  side  the  grounds  present  a  gentle  undulation, 
the  fresh  green  turf  being  intersected  by  broad  gravel  walks, 
and  relieved  at  inten'als  by  darker  clumps  of  shrubs,  flowers, 
and  trees,  among  which  the  tombs  and  sculptured  memorials 
of  those  who  rest  beneath  rise  in  gracefiil  solemnity  around. 
There  are  many  names  upon  the  tablets  familiar  to  fame, 
and  the  aspect  of  the  place  altogether  affords  a  cheerful 
contrast  to  the  gloomy  regions  appropriated  to  the  same 
purpose  in  our  city  burial  grounds  From  here  we  can  cross 
over  to  Streatliam,  a  mile  westward,  and,  looking  in  at  the 
church,  see  the  tomb  of  Mr.  Thrale,  with  Dr.  Johnson's 
epitaph.  The  ancient  altar-tomb,  known  as  "  John  of 
Gaunt's,"  is  of  doubtful  origin,  but  certainly  not  connected 
with  the  individual  whose  name  it  bears.  Streatham  Spa, 
once  of  some  repute,  lies  to  the  east  of  the  village,  at  a  place 
called  Streatham  Wells.  We  can  hence  take  an  omnibus 
back  through  Brixton,  or  extend  our  walk  through  Clapham 
New  Park  into  the  Clapham  Road,  The  spacious  area  of 
Clapham  Common,  comprising  200  acres,  is  a  fine  addition 
to  the  parish,  and  is  much  frequented  by  cricketers. 

Stockwell,  to  the  right  of  the  road  from  Brixton  to  Clapham, 
was  the  scene  of  the  stupid  imposition  of  the  Stockwell  Ghost, 
who,  though  not  visible  himself,  endowed  kitchen  furniture 
with  wonderful  vitality,  made  plates  leap  from  th6  shelves, 
and  realizing  a  familiar  nursery  rhyme,  literally  caused  the 
dish  to  run  away  with  the  spoon.  The  whole  impostur*— 
and  a  more  palpable  one  is  not  to  be  met  with  in  the  annals 
of  credulity — was  the  successful  experiment  of  the  shrewd 
servant  girl  in  the  family  where  these  wonders  took  place. 
The  house  thus  signalized  stood  upon  the  green,  but  it  has 
been  much  altered  and  repaired  within  the  last  few  years.  A 
constant  relay  of  omnibuses  will  be  met  with  in  either  of  the 
main  roads,  and  will  afford  a  very  economical  conveyance 
either  to  the  city  or  west  end. 

Kennington  Common,  now  being  rapidly  enclosed  with 


buildings,  was,  before  the  erection  of  Horsemonger  Lane  Gaol, 
the  usual  place  of  execution  for  criminals  tried  in  this  part  of 
the  county.  Near  it,  also,  was  a  palace,  occasionally  inhabited 
by  the  Royal  Family  even  as  late  as  the  reign  of  Henry  VTL 
Camden  says  that  in  his  time  no  traces  of  the  building  were 
left,  whence  it  seems  probable  that  directly  it  ceased  to  be  a 
royal  residence  it  was  pulled  down.  The  "  Prince's  Eoad"  is 
said  to  have  been  that  by  which  the  Black  Prince  came  to 
this  palace  from  Lambeth,  and  a  tavern  in  the  road  still  bears 
the  sign  of  that  renowned  son  of  Edward  III.  Kennington  is 
besides  distinguished  in  histoiy  as  the  scene  of  the  banquet  or 
marriage  festival  of  a  Danish  nobleman,  at  which  Hardicannte, 
the  son  of  Canute  the  Great,  became  the  victim  of  his  own 
intemperance,  or,  according  to  others,  was  poisoned.  In  com- 
memoration of  his  death  the  festival  of  "  Hocktide"  is  said  to 
have  been  instituted.  Kennington  Church,  dedicated  to  St. 
Mark,  was  erected  in  1 824,  at  an  expense  of  nearly  £30,000. 
This  neighbourhood  is  rather  different  now  from  what  it  was 
in  the  reign  of  Edward  HI.,  when  bands  of  lawless  ruffians 
used  to  sally  forth  by  hundreds  at  a  time  to  rob  the  city, 
and  the  Lord  Mayor  and  Aldermen  had  to  keep  watch  for 
nights  together,  on  the  opposite  banks  of  the  Thames,  to 
oppose  their  incursions.  The  Surrey  side  of  the  water  has 
been  lately  wonderfully  improved,  both  in  the  style  of  its 
dwellings,  and  the  character  of  its  inhabitants.  It  now  includes 
by  far  the  best  portion  of  the  city  "  respectables." 



We  now  put  the  railway  again  into  requisition.  Go  down 
to  the  Terminus  at  Iiondon  Bridge  and  take  a  ticket  to 
Croydon  by  the  Croydon  Eailway.  The  scenery  along  the 
line  is  full  of  varied  interest,  and  the  excursionist  will  have  a 
good  opportunity  of  seeing  some  of  the  richest  portions  of  the 
Bouthern  outskirts  on  his  route.  Croydon  is  a  fine  old  town, 
with  some  attractive  vestiges  of  antiquity  about  it,  and  is  of 
local  importance  as  the  place  of  election  for  East  Surrey. 
The  name  is  derived  from  the  Saxon  derivatives  Croie,  chalk, 
and  dune  or  don,  a  bill,  which  pretty  clearly  describes  its 
geological  position.  On  the  left ,  as  we  stroll  towards  the  High 
Street,  wiU  be  noticed  "  Whitgift's  Almshouses,"  endowed  by 
Archbishop  Whitgift  in  1596,  for  a  warden,  chaplain,  school- 
master, and  forty  decayed  householders  of  Lambeth  and 
Croydon,  twenty  of  each  sex.  The  church,  with  its  ancient 
flint  tower  and  recently  renovated  interior,  is  worthy  examina- 
tion. It  was  built  on  the  site  of  a  Koman  place  of  worship,  by 
Archbishop  Courteney,  in  the  latter  part  of  the  14th  century, 
and  after  many  mutations  was  cruelly  ill-used  at  the  time  of 
the  civil  wars,  when  a  man  named  Blesse  was  paid  by  the 
Puritans  half-a-crown  a  day  to  break  the  beautifully  painted 
windows.  When  undergoing  restoration,  in  1844,  the  work- 
men discovered  some  ancient  paintings  of  a  large  size ;  they 


are  in  good  preservation,  but  the  execution  is  somewhat 
indifferent  Monuments  to  the  Archbishops  Sheldon,  Whit- 
gift,  and  others,  are  to  be  here  seen,  exhibiting  appropriate 
magnificence  of  embellishment.  The  Archbishops  of  Canter- 
bury had  a  palace  here  for  many  centuries,  and  a  portion  of 
it,  used  as  a  laundry,  still  remains.  In  exploring  the  country 
round  Croydon — and  finer  scenery  is  not  to  be  met  with  fifty 
miles  from  town — the  rambler  must  consult  his  own  con- 
venience and  powers  of  pedestrianism.  We  give  him  a  choice 
of  routes,  right  and  left  of  the  station,  which  may  serve  at 
different  times  as  useful  hints  for  a  day's  ramble. 

BeddingUm  is  a  capital  point  for  a  stroll,  being  two  miles 
and  a  half  from  Croydon,  and  reached  through  a  highly 
picturesque  district  The  village,  situated  on  the  banks  of  the 
Wandle,  has  a  church  built  of  flint,  and,  though  recently 
renovated,  has  still  a  portion  remaining  of  the  original 
structure,  belonging  to  the  time  of  Richard  the  Second.  A 
glance  within  will  show  an  ancient  Elizabethan  pulpit,  a 
curious  square  font  supported  by  four  pillars,  and  several 
tombs  of  the  Carews,  one  especially  being  remarkable — a 
monumental  brass  to  Nicholas  Carew,  dated  1432.  Bedding- 
ton  Park  has  been  for  at  least  four  hundred  years  the  seat  of 
the  Carew  family,  the  present  possessor  being  Captain  Charles 
Carew,  of  the  Royal  Navy.  In  1.599  and  1600  Queen  Elizabeth 
was  a  frequent  guest  at  their  mansion,  and  her  favorite  walk 
is  still  pointed  out,  with  an  oak  tree  she  is  said  to  have 
planted.  The  old  building  being  burned  down,  in  1709,  with 
the  exception  of  the  hall,  the  present  mansion  stands  precisely 
on  the  site  of  that  erected  by  Sir  Francis  Carew,  and  still 
wears  an  aspect  of  ancient  grandeur  that  carries  us  back  to 
the  time  of  square  cut  coats  and  flowing  ruflSes.  Sir  Francis 
Carew  was  the  brother-in-law  of  Sir  Walter  Raleigh,  who 
brought  over  the  pips  of  some  oranges,  which  were  here 
planted,  for  the  first  time  in  England,  and  thriving  exceed- 
ingly, proved  the  origin  of  the  orangery  now  attached  to  th« 


Carshalton  is  a  mile  further,  and  in  the  very  heart  of  the 
village  has  a  beautiful  expanse  of  water,  which,  receiving  the 
contributions  of  various  springs  gushing  from  the  chalky  soil, 
is  afterwards  known  as  the  river  Wandle.  The  trout  found 
in  this  stream  are  unexceptionable  in  quality  and  quantity. 
The  church  is  in  the  early  English  style,  with  some  antique 
brass  memorials  to  Nicholas  Ganeysford  and  family.  Near 
the  churchyard  is  a  spring,  over-arched  with  stone,  and  called 
"  Queen  Anne  Boleyn's  Well,"  from  some  vague  tradition  of 
her  having  stopped  to  admire  its  crj'Stal  clearness  on  her  way 
from  Hever.  The  walks  from  here  over  Dupper's  Hill  and 
Banstead  Downs  are  delightful,  yielding  prospects  of  great 
extent  and  infinite  beauty.  Home  Tooke  lived  for  many 
years  at  Purley  House,  not  far  distant,  and  there  wrote  his 
celebrated  grammarian  treatise,  called  "  The  Diversions  of 
Purley."  At  Woodmansterne,  six  miles  from  Croydon,  there 
is  an  old  tree,  said — but  we  think  erroneously — to  mark  the 
highest  point  in  the  county.  It  is  certain,  however,  that  the 
ground  about  here  is  level  with  the  cross  of  St.  Paul's. 

On  the  left,  or  eastern,  side  of  Croydon  there  are  equally 
attractive  spots  with  those  we  have  just  noticed.  Passing 
through  Addiscombe,  where  is  situated  the  Military  College  of 
the  East  India  Company,  in  which  about  150  cadets  are 
educated,  we  may  make  our  way  round  to  Addington,  nearly 
four  miles  from  Croydon.  Here  is  an  antique  church  of  the 
time  of  Edward  IH.  in  some  portions,  but  rebuilt,  about  1777, 
after  a  combination  of  orders  that  may  be  called,  for  want  of 
a  better,  the  early  Churchwarden  style.  The  chief  feature, 
however,  of  the  place  is  Addington  Park,  the  seat  of  the 
Archbishop  of  Canterbury,  and  formerly  a  hunting  lodge  of 
Henry  VIII.  The  mansion,  built  at  the  cost  of  £40,000, 
coDttmands  some  extensive  views,  and  the  grounds  are 
spacious  and  well  planted.  The  vicinity  is  rich  in  pleasant 
strolls,  and  green  lanes  and  breezy  footpaths  abound.  There 
are  several  Saxon  barrows,  too,  upon  the  hills,  well  worth 
inspection,  one  presenting  no  less  than  25  tumuli  clustered 



together,  and  a  high  mound,  the  burial  place  of  a  great 
unknown,  37  feet  in  diameter.  A  circular  encampment  of  two 
acres,  environed  by  a  double  moat,  may  still  be  seen  on 
Thunderfield  Common.  A  delightful  day  may  be  spent  in 
rambhng  about  here,  taking  a  train  from  the  Brighton 
Station  of  the  Croydon  Railway  back,  for  the  sake  of 
shortening  the  return  distance. 

Pursuing  our  route,  by  railway,  for  those  inclined  to  get 
still  further  out,  we  pass  through  the  Merstham  Tunnel — 180 
feet  beneath  the  surface,  and  a  mile  in  length — and  stop  at  the 
Keigate  Station,  from  which  Eeigate  is  about  a  mile  and  a 
half  distant.  Or  the  pedestrian  can  alight  at  Merstham,  and 
enjoy  a  two  miles  walk  through  Gatton  Park.  There  are 
omnibuses  generally  to  meet  the  trains.  The  t^n  of  Reigate 
is  on  a  bed  of  various  sands,  chiefly  white,  highly  estimated 
for  the  plate  glass  manufacture.  Of  its  once  famous  castle, 
held  by  the  De  Warrena  family,  no  remains  exist,  but  a 
cavern  under  the  castle  mount,  called  "  The  Baron's  Cave" — 
from  a  supposition  that  here  the  barons  fii-st  drew  up  an 
outline  of  Magna  Charta — is  evidently  a  subterraneous  portion 
of  the  old  fortress.  It  descends  about  200  feet  into  a  vault 
150  feet  long  and  nearly  twelve  feet  high.  Whether  a  natural 
chasm  or  an  artificial  excavation  has  not  been  very  clearly 
ascertained,  but  it  was  most  probably  the  latter.  A  small  fee 
is  i-equired  for  showing  it  by  the  Cicerone  of  the  spot.  The 
castle  was  taken,  in  1216,  by  the  Bai'ons,  aided  by  the  Dauphin 
Louis  of  France,  and  was  demolished  soon  after.  At  the  east 
end  of  the  town  is  the  church,  with  little  exteriorly  remarkable 
beyond  what  it  gains  from  its  situation.  Some  monuments 
within  are,  however,  worth  looking  at.  In  the  chancel  is 
interred  Lord  Howard  Earl  of  Effingham,  who,  as  High 
Admiral  of  the  English  Fleet,  so  materially  assisted  in  routing 
the  Spanish  Armada;  the  date  is  1588.  A  monument  to  the 
Ladbroke  family,  and  one  to  Sir  Thomas  Bludder  and  his 
wife,  who  died  in  1618,  present  some  singular  sculptures  of 
full  length  figures.    Over  the  vestry  is  a  rather  rare  thougli 


very  sei'viceable  addition  to  a  parochial  church,  in  the  shape 
of  a  library,  instituted,  in  1518,  by  Jolm  Skynner;  it  chiefly 
comprises  works  of  divinity.  About  lialf  a  mile  to  the  south 
of  the  town  is  the  "  Priory,"  a  modem  structure,  the  seat  of 
Earl  Somers,  occupying  the  site  of  the  ancient  monastic 
establishment  founded,  in  1240,  by  William  de  Warrena. 
Ascending  the  hill  there  is  a  fine  panoramic  view  over  the 
adjacent  country,  which  well  repays  the  excursionist  for  going 
a  little  out  of  his  way  to  enjoy  this  expansive  survey  of  the 
Weald  and  Downs  of  Sussex  and  Surrey.  Before  leaving  the 
town  there  is  the  old  Market  House,  with  the  ToAvn  Hall 
above  it,  which  must  claim  a  passing  notice,  as  marking  the 
site  of  one  of  the  many  way-side  chapels  dedicated  to  Saint 
Thomas  a  Becket,  The  pilgrims'  road  to  Canterbury  led  round 
by  the  chalk  hills  near  Merstham,  and  it  was  doubtless  by  tliis 
route  that  Chaucer's  immortal  company  passed  onward  to  the 

From  Reigate  to  Dorking  there  is  a  walk,  ride,  or  drive  of 
six  miles,  which  is  certain  to  gratify  the  tastes  of  all  lovers  of 
fine  scenery.  A  coach  passes  along  from  Reigate  to  Guildford 
every  afternoon,  and  for  a  small  fare  will  give  the  pedestrian 
an  opportunity  of  saving  his  locomotive  powers  for  a  stroll 
round  the  tOAvn  and  over  the  surrounding  hills.  Just  before 
entering  Dorking  he  will  have  his  attention  attracted  by 
Deepdene,  the  seat  of  H.  T.  Hope  Esq.,  the  gi-ounds  belonging 
to  which  have  been  lately  considerably  extended  by  the 
purchase  of  Betchworth  Castle  and  Chai-t  Park.  There  are 
numerous  ■^'illas  scattered  about  the  neighbom-hood,  most  of 
them  in  the  prettiest  situations  imaginable.  Dorking  is  famous 
for  its  peculiar  breed  of  fowls,  thought  to  have  been  originally 
inti'oduced  by  the  Romans,  and  is  one  of  the  most  lively  and 
diarmingly  environed  places  in  all  Surrey.  Occupying  a 
portion  of  the  Valley  of  the  Mole,  on  the  south  side  of  the 
North  Downs,  it  has  a  range  of  hills  within  its  precincts  that 
make  perfect  cosmoi'amas  of  the  surrounding  villages,  each 
step  higher  on  the  slope  of  the  Downs  giving  a  change  in  the 


prospect  "We  would  especially  recommend  those  who  can 
spare  the  time  to  sleep  at  one  of  the  Dorking  inns — there  are 
several  both  good  and  reasonable — and  set  off,  early  next 
morning,  to  Leith  Hill,  four  miles  to  the  south.  The  view 
from  the  summit,  nearly  a  thousand  feet  above  the  level  of  the 
sea,  will  astonish  those  who  fancy  there  can  be  nothing  worth 
looking  at  in  this  way  south  of  Snowdon.  If  the  trip  can  be 
made  of  a  fine  summer  or  autimmal  morning,  rising  at  dawn 
and  getting  up  the  hill  time  enough  to  see  the  mist  dispersed 
by  the  growing  sunlight,  the  pleasure  is  considerably  enhanced. 
There  is  a  little  inn,  half  way  up,  where  a  breakfast  after  a 
simple  but  clean  and  comely  fashion  can  be  obtained,  and  we 
hold  this  by  no  means  of  minor  importance,  after  an  experience 
of  the  fearful  appetites  we  have  seen  created  on  the  way.  The 
hill  is  crowned  by  a  small  structure,  traditionally  said  to  mark 
the  spot  where  an  eccentric  farmer  of  the  neighbourhood  was 
buried  on  horseback  upside  down,  so  that  when  the  world  was 
tamed — as  he  believed  it  then  soon  would  be — topsy-tuny, 
he  might  come  up  at  last  in  a  right  position.  A  day  on  Leith 
Hill  is  a  capital  substitute  for  a  trip  to  Switzerland,  and  its 
beauties  are — to  their  shame  be  it  spoken — not  half  so  well 
known  to  Londoners  as  they  deserve.  It  is  the  very  haunt  for 
secluded  meditation,  with  nothing  to  be  heard  but  the  dozy 
chirruping  of  insects  among  the  grass,  and  the  distant  song 
of  the  soaring  skylark  far  beneath.  Box  Hill,  where  the  Mole 
disappears  and  again  oozes  through  the  porous  soil  at 
Leatherhead,  the  Vale  of  Mickleham,  with  Norbury  Park, 
Walton-on-the-Hill,  and  the  country  round  Leatherhead,  are 
all  so  many  delightiul  spots  that  can  be  made  to  yield  the 
greatest  enjoyment,  with  no  other  conditions  than  a  moderately 
filled  purse  and  fine  weather. 

Leatherhead  is  five  miles  from  Dorking,  on  the  banks  of  the 
Mole,  that  has  now  gained  importance  enough  to  be  crossed 
by  a  bridge,  and,  though  a  small  town,  has  some  very  sub- 
stantial dwellings,  with  a  venerable  church  of  the  13th  century 
rising  firom  an  eminence  at  the  east  end.    Ashstead,  midway 

EPSOM.  89 

between  Leatherbead  and  Epsom,  has  a  fine  park,  the  seat 
of  the  Hon.  Col.  Fulke  Greville  Howard,  and  is  plentifully 
provided  with  deer. 

Epsom,  two  miles  further,  enjoys  a  world-wide  celebrity 
for  two  very  different  things — its  Race-course  and  its  Salts. 
WhUst  the  former,  however,  still  flourishes  in  unabated  attrac- 
tion, the  latter  has  been  long  superseded  by  an  artificial  pre- 
paration of  the  same  nature  and  bearing  the  same  name.  In 
the  17th  century  this  was  the  fashionable  Spa  of  England, 
and  the  newspapers  of  the  time  advertised  *'  that  the  post  will 
go  every  day  to  and  fro,  between  London  and  Epsom,  during 
the  season  for  drinking  the  waters."  In  the  time  of  Chai'les  I. 
these  salts  were  so  celebrated  that  they  were  sold  at  5s.  the 
ounce,  and  from  1690  to  1720  the  wells  were  in  their  zenith 
of  prosperity.  As  chemical  science  improved,  cheaper  and 
more  abundant  sources  were  discovered,  and  even  sea  water 
was  found  to  yield  it  by  evaporation.  It  is  simply  a  sulphate 
of  magnesia,  and  is  generally  prepared  for  commerce  by 
subjecting  magnesian  limestone  to  the  action  of  muriatic  and 
sulphuric  acid.  The  old  bath  room  was  pulled  down  in  1804. 
The  race-course,  on  the  Downs  south-east  of  the  town,  with  its 
noble  "  Grand  Stand,"  and  the  annual  attractions  of  the 
"Derby"  day,  form  a  combination  of  attractive  features  too 
familiar  to  need  more  than  a  brief  mention.  Epsom  Races — 
the  most  truly  national  festival  of  which  we  can  boast — have 
been  held  annually  on  the  same  spot  since  1730;  the  two 
great  races, "  The  Derby"  and  "  The  Oaks,"  deriving  their 
names,  one  from  the  title  of  the  nobleman  by  whom  it  was 
instituted,  and  the  other  from  the  fine  seat  of  the  Earl  of 
Derby,  near  Sutton,  called  "  The  Oaks." 

Ewell  is  one  mile  from  Epsom,  and  was,  in  the  time  of 
Henry  VIIL,  famous  for  its  magnificent  Palace  of  Nonsuch, 
which,  for  costly  splendour  of  decoration,  was  said  to  have 
been  without  a  rival  in  Europe.  It  was  demolished,  by  a 
caprice  of  the  Duchess  of  Cleveland,  in  1670,  and  now  not  a 
vestige  of  its  former  grandeur  remains.    Unless  a  return  trip 

86  BdTCHAH. 

on  the  recent  extension  of  the  Croydon  Railway  is  preferred, 
we  can  proceed  back  to  London  by  way  of  Chcam,  Sutton, 
and  Mitcham,  whence  a  great  portion  of  the  medicinal  plants 
•old  by  the  herbalists  and  apothecaries  is  derived.  The  air  of 
this  region  is  heavy  with  the  exhaled  fragrance  of  peppermint 
and  lavender;  and  fields  of  chamomiles,  poppies,  rhubarb, 
wormwood,  and  aniseed,  meet  the  eye  in  every  direction.  We 
can  go  from  Mitcham  either  through  Tooting  and  Clapham, 
or  through  Streatham  and  Brixton,  back  over  the  bridges  to 
London.  Or,  should  inclination  and  convenience  render  it 
desirable,  we  can  suggest,  as  another  agreeable  road,  the  walk 
of  four  miles,  from  Ewell  to  the  Kingston  Station,  over 
Kingston  Common,  and  so  return  by  the  South- Western 



In  one  hour  and  a  half  after  leaving  Nine  Elms  the  quick 
trains  of  the  South- Western  Raihvay  will  set  a  passenger 
down  at  Guildford,  which,  though  so  full  of  objects  to  render 
a  day's  jaunt  delightfully  interesting,  was  little  visited  by 
excursionists  from  town  imtil  the  extension  of  the  line  from 
Woking  made  the  distance  fall  within  the  compass  of  an 
afternoon's  journey.  Seated  on  the  slope  of  a  chalk  hill  rising 
from  the  river  Wey,  the  aspect  of  the  town,  on  our  first 
entrance,  is  singularly  striking  and  picturesque ;  the  streets, 
too,  have  a  cheerful  bustle  about  them,  and  the  salubrity  of 
the  air  is  well  attested  by  the  broad  ruddy  featxires  of  the 
farmers  that  we  encounter  about  the  market-place.  The 
visitor,  after  the  discussion  of  that  refreshment  which  his 
railway  ride  will  have  rendered  requisite,  vdll  of  course  go 
down  the  High  Street,  wherein  he  shall  see,  on  the  north  side, 
a  venerable  building  cro^vTied  with  a  turret,  and  having  a 
clock  projecting  into  the  street,  with  a  double  dial  east  and 
west.  This  is  the  Town  Hall,  a  building  about  170  years  old, 
and  the  place  of  meeting  for  the  to^vn  and  county  quarter 
sessions.  Opposite  is  the  Com  Market.  The  three  parish 
churches,  St.  Nicholas,  on  the  west,  Trinity,  in  the  east,  and 
St.  Mary's,  on  the  south,  are  of  various  degrees  of  architectural 
merit;  Trinity  Church  being  the  most  modem,  and  St,  Mary's 
the  most  antique.  The  remains  of  Guildford  Castle,  built 
about  the  time  of  the  Norman  Conquest,  are  scattered  down 


the  south  side  of  the  High  Street,  where  some  of  the  outer 
walls,  of  amazing  strength  and  thickness,  may  yet  be  seen  to 
attest  the  solidity  and  magnitude  of  this  formidable  fortress.  Its 
position,  commanding  the  river  Wey,  was  well  calculated  for 
the  defence  of  the  town.  Many  portions  of  the  walls,  endur- 
ingly  built  of  flint  and  ragstone,  are  10  feet  thick.  Abbot's 
Hospital,  founded  in  the  reign  of  James  I.,  by  George  Abbot, 
Archbishop  of  Canterbury,  is  an  interesting  relic  of  well- 
directed  munificence.  There  are  twelve  aged  men  and  eight 
aged  women  admitted  to  the  benefits  of  this  institution,  which 
had  an  endowment  on  a  very  liberal  scale.  The  environs  of 
Guildford  have  many  attractions,  not  among  the  least  of 
which  is  St.  Catherine's  Hill,  about  a  mile  from  the  town, 
which,  with  a  continuation  of  the  ramble  acrosss  the  hilly 
range  called  the  "  Hog's  back,"  will  be  found  to  yield  most 
delightful  views.  Sutton  Place,  built  by  Sir  Richard  Western 
in  1530,  and  Losely  Hall,  reputed  to  have  originated  from  Sir 
Thomas  More,  are  both  within  two  miles  of  the  town. 

From  Guildford  there  is  a  magnificent  drive,  of  about  ten 
miles,  on  to  Famham,  across  the  hills  and  through  two 
picturesque  little  villages,  called  Puttenham  and  Scale.  To 
the  left  of  Scale  and  "  the  Hog's  Back"  is  Hampton  Ixxlge, 
embosomed  among  the  trees,  the  elegant  mansion  of  Henry 
Lawes  Long  Esq.,  author  of  several  antiquarian  works  of 
celebrity.  Hops  and  antiquities  both  invest  Famham  with 
considerable  importance,  and  render  its  name  familiar  alike  to 
ale-drinkers  and  antiquarians.  The  ruins  of  Famham  Castle, 
which  may  be  seen  on  a  hill  to  the  north  of  the  town,  are  in 
very  good  preservation.  The  founder  was  Bishop  Henry  De 
Blois,  brother  to  that  "worthy  peer"  King  Stephen,  and 
though  it  is  certain,  in  our  days  of  ci^-ilization,  a  church  would 
be  deemed  more  befitting  the  outlay  of  a  bishop  than  a  castle, 
the  design  was  then  spoken  of  as  a  sound  proof  of  ecclesiastical 
prudence.  It  was  garrisoned  for  Charles  L  by  Sir  John 
Denham,  but  Waller,  who  commanded  the  Roundheads, 
necessitated  a  retreat,  and  blew  up  the  fortress  in  1642.    After 


the  restoration  it  was  rebuilt,  and  the  Bishop's  palace  within 
restored  to  its  former  splendour.  The  ascent  to  the  keep, 
which  was  once  flanked  by  two  massive  towers,  is  very 
impressive,  and,  passing  through  the  doorway,  the  visitor 
reaches  a  long  avenue,  terminated  by  another  doorway,  and 
thence  can  look  into  the  open  area  of  the  ancient  "  donjon." 
Saxon  columns  and  pointed  arches  are  visible,  both  on  the 
east  and  south  side  of  the  great  court,  and  the  deep  ditch 
sun-ounding  the  outworks  is  devoted  to  the  more  peaceful  art 
of  cookery,  as  a  kitchen  garden.  The  present  Bishop  of 
Winchester  has  made  some  slight  alterations  and  additions  to 
the  structure,  erecting  a  spacious  library,  and  embellishing  it 
with  some  valuable  pictures,  shown  occasionally  to  visitors 
properly  recommended.  Adjoining  the  castle  is  the  "  Little" 
Park,  comprising  about  300  acres,  and  having  a  pleasant 
promenade,  formed  by  an  elm  grove,  wliich  extends  across 
the  park  for  nearly  a  mile.  At  an  inn  called  the  "Jolly 
Farmer,"  in  Abbey  Street,  was  bom  William  Cobbett,  who 
has  repeatedly  testified  in  his  works  the  interest  with  wliich 
he  viewed  the  place  of  his  nativity.  About  a  mile  and  a  half 
from  the  town,  through  Moor  Park,  will  be  found  the 
exquisitely  beautiful  ruins  of  "  Waverly  Abbey,"  the  property 
of  —  Nicholson  Esq.,  and  the  curious  cavern,  known  in  the 
vernacular,  as  "  Mother  Ludlam's."  This  is  a  rare  region  for 
an  artist  to  find  materials  for  his  sketch-book,  and  there  is  for 
others,  icthyologically  disposed,  some  respectable  fishing  in 
the  Blackwater. 

It  was  at  Moor  Park  that  Sir  William  Temple,  a  well- 
known  statesman  and  miscellaneous  writer,  passed  the  evening 
of  his  busy  life,  having  the  renowned  Jonathan  Swift,  then  a 
young  man,  residing  with  him  as  his  amanuensis.  Here  it  was 
that  Swift  engaged  in  a  "  love  affair"  with  Miss  Hester  John- 
son, a  daughter  of  the  steward  of  Sir  William  Temple,  and 
the  same  lady  whom  he  has  immortalised  under  the  name  of 
Stella.  When  Swift  returned  to  Ireland,  Miss  Johnson, 
accompanied  by  another  female  of  maturer  age,  went  to 


reside  in  his  neighbourhood,  and  the  unhappy  issue  of  this 
attachment  is  well  known.  Stella,  though  ultimately  united 
to  Swift  by  a  private  marriage  in  the  garden  of  the  Deanery, 
never  enjoyed  any  public  recognition  of  the  tie,  and  she  soon 
after  died  worn  out  with  wasted  hope  and  blighted  anticipa- 
tions. Ten  miles  from  Famham  is  the  picturesque  village  of 
Selbome,  the  birthplace  of  the  Rev.  Gilbert  White,  who  has,  in 
his  "  Natural  History "  of  this  spot,  graphically  described  the 
peculiarities  of  the  country  round : — "  The  soils  of  this  district," 
he  says,  "  are  almost  as  varied  as  the  views  and  aspects.  The 
high  part  to  the  south-west  consists  of  a  vast  hill  of  chalk, 
rising  300  feet  above  the  village,  and  divided  into  a  sheep 
down,  the  high  wood,  and  a  long  hanging  wood  called  the 
Hanger.  The  covert  of  this  eminence  is  principally  beech, 
the  most  lovely  of  all  forest  trees,  whether  we  consider  its 
smooth  rind  or  bark,  its  glossy  foliage,  or  graceful  pendulous 
boughs."  The  prospect  is  vast  and  extensive,  being  bounded 
by  the  Guildford  range  of  the  Sussex  Downs,  and  the  Downs 
round  Dorking  and  Reigate,  which  altogether,  with  the 
country  round  Alton  and  Famham,  form  a  noble  and  expan- 
sive outline.  The  pedestrian,  therefore,  who  has  time  to  spare, 
may  well  be  tempted  to  extend  his  excursion  on  to  Selbome. 

Famborough  Station  is  only  six  miles  from  Farnlmm,  and 
here  the  excursionist  can  come  over  in  the  afternoon  or 
evening  by  a  reasonable  conveyance,  deposit  himself  in  one  of 
the  South-Western  trains,  and  be  back  in  another  two  hours 
amid  the  streets  and  shops  of  London. 



Thrbe  are  no  less  than  four  modes  of  getting  to  Greenwich, 
each  of  them  to  be  severally  commended  as  speedy,  agreeable, 
and  economical.  They  are: — 1.  By  omnibus  from  Charing 
Cross  down  the  New  Kent  Road.  2.  By  Greenwich  Rail- 
way from  the  south  side  of  London  Bridge.  3.  By  Blackwall 
Railway  from  Fenchurch  Street  to  Blackwall,  crossing  the 
river  by  a  steamer;  and  4,  by  Steamboats  from  Westminster, 
Waterloo,  Blackfriars,  and  London  Bridges,  from  which  two 
companies  keep  up  a  constant  succession  of  departures  every 
twenty  minutes  throughout  the  day.  For  the  sake  of  variety 
we  shall  proceed  to  describe  the  journey  by  water,  which,  of  a 
fine  day,  is  not  only  the  most  agreeable,  but,  as  ftimishing  an 
excellent  opportunity  of  seeing  the  scenery  of  the  Thames,  is 
perhaps  most  desirable  to  strangers. 

Leaving  London  Bridge,  a  perfect  forest  of  masts,  belong- 
ing to  ships  of  all  sizes  and  all  nations,  looms  out  in  the 
Pool.  Billingsgate,  situated  chiefly  at  the  back  of  that  cluster 
of  buildings  by  the  Custom  House,  has  been  since  the  days  of 
William  III.  the  most  famous  fish-market  in  Europe.  The 
Custom  Hovse,  likewise  on  our  left,  was  begun  in  1813,  and 
finished  four  years  afterwards,  at  a  cost  of  nearly  half-a- 


million.  It  contains  nearly  200  distinct  apartments,  each 
having  a  range  of  communication  with  the  Long  Room,  which 
is  197  feet  long,  and  50  feet  high.  One  hundred  clerks  are 
engaged  about  this  room  alone,  and  the  principal  business  of 
''  clearing"  is  here  conducted.  We  next  see  the  Tower,  said  to 
have  been  built  by  Julius  Csesar,  and  afterwards  reconstructed 
by  William  the  Conqueror.  The  last  state  prisoners  here  were 
Thistlewood  and  his  associates,  in  1820,  for  the  Cato  Street 
conspiracy.  The  public  have  free  access  from  ten  till  four:  one 
shilling  being  charged  to  \ievr  the  regalia.  About  half-a-mile 
lower  down  are  the  warehouses  of  Saint  Katlierine's  Docks, 
whicli  cost  one  million  in  construction,  and  were  first  opened 
in  1828.  The  London  Docks,  close  by,  opened  in  1805,  occupy 
a  space  of  about  30  acres.  Wapping  is  a  well-known  resort 
for  sailors  and  those  connected  with  maritime  pursuits.  At 
Execution  Dock  pirates  were  formerly  hung  in  chains.  Rother- 
hithe,  opposite,  is,  in  its  river  frontage,  only  distinguished  by  a 
mass  of  warehouses,  and  the  glimpse  we  get  of  the  old  parish 
church,  where  Prince  Lee  Boo  was  buried.  The  Tunnel,  over 
which  we  next  pass,  was  first  commenced,  to  afford  a  subaqeous 
communication  between  the  two  sides  of  the  river,  in  1825, 
and  was  completed,  after  much  difiiculty  and  expense,  in 
twenty  years.  Sir  I.  Brunei  was  the  projector  and  engineer. 
The  height  is  nearly  25  feet,  and  the  length  1,300  feet.  One 
penny  toll  is  charged  for  each  passenger.  Entering  the  Lower 
Pool  we  pass  Limehouse,  where  the  Regent's  Canal  communi- 
cates with  the  Thames,  and  have  next  to  notice  the  West  India 
Docks,  opened  in  1802,  after  an  expenditure  of  £1,200,000, 
and  extending  over  an  area  of  204  acres.  On  the  opposite 
side  of  the  river  are  the  Commercial  Docks,  after  which  is 
passed  Earl's  Sluice,  forming  the  boundary  between  Surrey 
and  Kent.  Deptford,  where  the  dockyard  and  its  bustling 
animation  gives  a  lively  appearance  to  the  shore,  reminds  one 
of  Peter  the  Great,  who,  in  1698,  came  to  Sayes  Court  and 
studied  the  cnift  of  ship- building  at  the  once  picturesque 
retreat  of  Evelyn,  the  auto-biographist  and  author  of '"  Sylva." 


But,  alas  for  the  f^lories  of  Sayes  Court — its  glittering  hollies, 
long  avenues,  and  trim  hedges!  That  portion  of  the  victualling 
yard  where  oxen  arc  slaughtered  and  hogs  salted  for  the  use 
of  the  navy  occupies  the  enchanting  grounds  wherein  Evelyn 
was  wont  to  delight,  and  on  the  site  of  the  mansion  itself  is 
the  common  workhouse  of  the  parish.  Approaching  Green- 
wich Reach,  where  large  quantities  of  white  bait  are  caught 
in  the  season,  the  opening  of  the  river  discloses  a  pretty  view 
of  a  distant  country  beyond,  and,  with  a  few  more  revolutions 
of  the  paddle  wheel,  we  are  brought  to  our  destination, 

Greenwich  presents  a  striking  appearance  from  the  river,  its 
Hospital  forming  one  of  the  most  prominent  attractions  of  the 
place.  Here  was  the  palace  erected  by  Humphrey  Duke  of 
Gloucester,  and  by  him  called  Placentia,  and  here  were  bom 
Henry  VHI.  and  his  two  daughters,  Queens  Mary  and 
Elizabeth.  Charles  11.  began  the  present  magnificent  edifice, 
and  William  III.  appropriated  it  to  its  present  patriotic 
purpose,  since  which  time  successive  sovereigns  have  con- 
tributed to  enrich  it  with  various  additions.  As  the  first 
generally  seen  we  shall  begin  our  description  with  an  account 
of  its  interior.  The  Chapel  and  Picture  Gallery  are  open 
gi'atis  on  Mondays  and  Fridays;  on  other  days  threepence 
each  is  charged  for  admission.  It  is  as  well  to  remind  the 
reader  that  the  Hospital  consists  of  four  distinct  piles  of 
building,  distinguished  by  the  appellations  of  King  Charles's, 
King  "William's,  Queen  Mary's,  and  Queen  Anne's.  King 
Charles's  and  Queen  Anne's  are  those  next  the  river,  and 
between  them  is  the  grand  square,  270  feet  wide,  and  the 
terrace  by  the  river  front,  865  feet  in  length.  Beyond  the 
square  are  seen  the  Hall  and  Chapel  with  their  noble  domes, 
and  the  two  colonnades,  which  are  backed  by  the  eminence 
whereon  the  Observatory  stands  throned  amid  a  grove  of 
trees.  In  the  centre  of  the  great  square  is  Rysbrach's  statue  of 
George  II.,  carved  out  of  white  mai'ble,  from  a  block  taken 
from  the  French  by  Sir  George  Rooke,  and  which  weighed 
eleven  tons.     On  the  west  side  is  King  Charles's  building, 


erected  chiefly  of  Portland  stone  in  the  year  1684.  The  whole 
contains  about  300  beds,  distributed  in  13  wards.  Queen 
Anne's  building,  on  the  east  side  of  the  square,  corresponding 
with  that  on  the  opposite  side,  was  began  in  1693  and 
completed  in  1726.  There  are  here  24  wards  with  437  beds, 
and  several  of  the  officers'  apartments.  To  the  south-west  is 
King  William's  building,  comprising  the  great  hall,  vestibule, 
and  dome,  erected,  between  1698  and  1703,  by  Sir  Christopher 
Wren.  It  contains  1 1  wards  and  554  beds.  Queen  Mary's 
building  was,  with  the  chapel,  not  completed  till  1752,  It 
contains  13  wards  and  1,100  beds.  The  Painted  Hall,  a  noble 
structure  opposite  the  chapel,  is  divided  into  three  rooms, 
exhibiting  as  you  enter  statues  of  Nelson  and  Duncan,  with  28 
pictures  of  various  sizes;  the  chief  are  Turner's  large  picture 
of  "  The  Battle  of  Trafalgar,"  the  "  Relief  of  Gibraltar,"  and 
the  "  Defeat  of  the  French  Fleet  under  Compte  de  Grasse." 
On  the  opposite  side  is  Loutherbourg's  picture  of  Lord 
Howe's  victory  on  the  memorable  1st  of  June,  1794,  whilst 
above  are  suspended  the  flags  taken  in  the  battle.  The  other 
pictures  up  the  steps  are  chronologically  arranged,  the  most 
prominent  being  "  The  Death  of  Captain  Cook,"  the  "  Battle 
of  Camperdown,"  "  Nelson  leaping  into  the  San  Josef,"  and 
"  The  Bombardment  of  Algiers."  It  may  not  be  generally 
known  that  every  mariner,  either  in  the  Royal  Navy  or 
merchant  service,  pays  sixpence  a  month  towards  the  support 
of  this  noble  institution,  which  has,  of  course,  besides  a 
handsome  revenue  (£130,000)  derived  from  other  sources. 
The  pensioners,  who  are  of  every  rank  from  the  admiral  to 
the  humblest  sailor,  are  qualified  for  admission  by  being  either 
maimed  or  disabled  by  age.  Foreigners  who  have  served  two 
consecutive  years  in  the  British  service  are  equally  entitled  to 
the  privileges,  and  the  widows  of  seamen  are  exclusively 
appointed  nurses.  The  Hospital  was  first  opened  in  January, 
1705,  and  now  the  pensioners  pro%'ided  with  food,  clothes, 
lodging,  and  a  small  stipend  for  pocket-money,  number  nearly 
2,500.    The  number  of  out-pensioners  is  about  3,000.    The 


"Royal  Naval  School,"  for  training  the  sons  of  seamen  to  the 
naval  service,  is  a  most  interesting  institution,  administering 
the  best  instruction  to  now  about  450  boys. 

The  "Royal  Observatory,"  occupying  the  most  elevated 
spot  in  Greenwich  Park,  was  built  on  the  site  of  the  old  castle, 
the  foundation  stone  being  laid  on  the  10th  of  August,  1675. 
The  first  superintendent  of  the  establishment  was  Flamstead, 
and  he  commenced  his  observations  in  the  following  year.  It 
stands  about  300  feet  above  the  level  of  the  river,  for  the 
shipping  in  which  the  round  globe  at  its  summit  drops 
precisely  at  noon,  to  give  the  exact  Greenwich  time.  The 
noble  park  is  chiefly  planted  with  elms  and  chesnut  trees,  and 
contains  188  acres.  It  was  walled  round  with  brick  in  the 
reign  of  James  I.  The  views  fi'om  the  summit  are  very  fine, 
embracing  perhaps  the  finest  prospect  of  London  and  the 
Thames,  the  forests  of  Hainault  and  Epping,  the  heights  of 
Hampstead,  and  a  survey  of  Kent,  Surrey,  and  Essex,  as  far 
as  the  eye  can  reach.  The  flitting  of  the  fawns  through  the 
distant  glades,  the  venerable  aspect  of  the  trees  themselves — 
many  of  them  saplings  in  the  time  of  Elizabeth — and  the 
appearance  of  the  veteran  pensioners,  some  without  a  leg  or 
arm,  others  hobbling  on  from  the  infirmity  of  wounds  or  age, 
and  all  clad  in  the  old-fashioned  blue  coats  and  breeches,  with 
cocked  hats,  give  beauty  and  animation  to  a  scene  which  no 
other  countiy  in  the  world  can  boast. 

A  small  doorway  in  the  south-western  extremity  of  the 
park  brings  us  out  with  a  sudden  contrast  on  to  Blachheath, 
where  Wat  Tyler  assembled  the  Kentish  rebels  in  the  reign  of 
Richard  II.,  and  where  Jack  Cade  and  his  fellow  insurgents 
are  said  to  have  held  their  midnight  meetings  in  a  cavern 
which  still  remains,  though  so  choked  up  as  to  be  considered 
nearly  inaccessible.  Lee  is  about  a  mile  distant,  crossing  the 
Heath  towards  the  south.  In  the  old  church  was  buried 
Halley  the  astronomer.  On  the  east  ofBlackheath  is"Morden 
College,"  founded  in  1695,  for  decayed  merchants,  and  now 
having  about  forty  recipients  of  its  benefits.    Following  the 

98  shooter's  hux. 

old  Dover-road,  which  crossing  the  Heath  leads  on  to 
Shooter's  Hill,  we  pass  a  rustic  little  hostelry,  on  our  left, 
distinguished  by  the  peculiar  title  of  ^he  "  Sun-in-the-Sands." 
Hazlitt,  Hunt,  and  others  of  our  essayists,  were  often  wont  to 
ramble  over  here ;  there  is  the  advantage  of  an  open  balcony, 
from  which  a  pleasant  view  may  be  obtained  of  the  surround- 
ing country.  It  is  recorded  by  old  Hall,  the  historian,  that 
King  Henry  VHI.  often  rode  "  a-maying  from  Greenwich  to 
the  high  ground  of  Shooter's  Hill  with  Queen  Katherine  his 
wife,  and  many  lords  and  ladies  in  gay  attire."  Several  jousts 
and  tourneys  took  place  here  in  the  same  reign,  at  one  of 
which  the  King  himself,  accompanied  by  the  Duke  of  Suffolk, 
the  Earl  of  Essex,  and  Sir  George  Carew,  challenged  all 
comers  to  tilt  at  the  barriers.  This  was  on  the  20th  of  May  in 
the  8th  year  of  King  Harry's  reign:  he  got  too  crass  and 
corpulent  for  such  athletic  pastimes  afterwards.  Shooter's 
Hill — anciently  Suiter's  hill,  from  the  number  of  applicants, 
doubtless,  that  came  this  way  to  procure  places  about  the 
court — is  446  feet  high,  and  commands  an  expansive  prospect. 
The  "mighty  mass  of  brick  and  smoke  and  shipping,"  as 
Byron  calls  the  view  of  London  from  this  point,  is  well  con- 
trasted with  the  foliage  of  the  wooded  country  extending 
towards  the  south  beyond  the  vale  of  Eltham.  On  the  summit 
rises  the  commemorative  castle  of  Sevemdroog,  built,  in  1784, 
by  Sir  William  James,  to  celebrate  the  conquest  of  one  so 
called  on  the  coast  of  Malabar. 

For  those  who  either  have  seen  Woolwich  or  who  prefer 
postponing  their  visit  thither  for  a  distinct  excursion,  we  can 
especially  recommend  a  deviation  from  Shooter's  Hill  down 
the  inviting  green  lane  at  its  base  that  leads  to  Eltham,  a 
pleasant  walk  of  hardly  two  miles.  Here  stood  anciently  one 
of  the  most  magnificent  of  England's  royal  palaces.  Anthony 
Bee,  the  "  battling  Bishop  "  of  Durham,  erected  the  first  man- 
sion, about  the  middle  of  the  13th  century,  and  on  his  death 
the  jnanor  with  its  possessions  fell  to  the  Crown,  which  is  still 
the  rightful  owner  of  the  property.    John,  son  of  Edward  H., 

ELTHAM.  99 

was  bora  here,  in  1315,  and  was  thence  called  John  of 
Eltham.  In  the  next  reign  the  Parliament  was  here  con- 
vened, and  Edward  IV.,  after  rebuilding  it,  kept  his  Christ- 
mas here  with  great  sjilendour  in  1482.  Henry  VII.  made  still 
further  additions,  and  in  his  time  the  Royal  Palace  consisted 
of  four  quadrangles  enclosed  within  a  high  wall  and  encircled 
by  a  moat.  A  garden  and  three  parks  were  attached, 
comprising  about  1,800  acres,  and  were  well  stocked  with 
deer.  The  many  fine  old  trees  that  still  remain  show  how 
richly  wooded  this  district  must  have  formerly  been.  AU 
that  now  remains  of  this  once  stately  edifice  is  the  Hall  or 
Banquetting  Room,  which  has  been  for  years  converted  to  the 
plebeian  uses  of  a  barn.  Nothing  can  be  more  interesting  than 
this  relic  of  ancient  kingly  grandeur.  The  symbol  of  the  rose, 
seen  on  various  portions  of  the  building,  identifies  the  Hall  as 
that  erected  by  Edward  IV.  In  1828  its  neglected  condition 
attracted  the  attention  of  antiquarians,  and  government  under- 
took the  work  of  restoration,  to  secure  the  permanence  of  what 
remained.  The  Hall  is  about  100  feet  long,  and  60  feet  high, 
and  it  has  been  well  said  "  the  taste  and  talent  of  ages  are 
concentrated  in  its  design."  The  windows  have  been  built  up, 
but  the  splendid  roof  is  nearly  perfect.  From  the  immense 
length  of  the  beams,  sound  and  straight  throughout,  it  has 
been  considered  that  a  forest  must  have  yielded  its  choicest 
timber  for  the  supply,  and  it  is  evident  the  material  has  been 
wrought  with  amazing  labour  and  admirable  skill.  Some  of 
the  walls  of  the  old  garden  are  perceptible,  to  the  east  of  the 
palace,  and  there  is  an  ancient  dwelling  close  by  worth  notice. 
In  1834  some  curious  subterraneous  passages  were  discovered. 
Under  the  ground-floor  was  found  a  trap-door  opening  into  a 
room  underground,  ten  feet  wide,  and  communicating  with 
Middle  Park,  where  there  were  excavations  sufficient  to 
contain  sixty  horses.  About  500  feet  of  this  passage  was 
entered,  and  200  feet  of  another,  which  passed  under  the 
moat,  and  was  believed,  from  traditions  extant,  to  lead  under 
Blackheath  to  Greenwich  or  the  river.  In  the  field  leading 

1^00  woorwiCH. 

from  Eltham  to  Mottingham  the  archway  was  broken  into, 
but  the  brickwork  could  be  traced  considerably  further  in  the 
same  direction.  After  leaving  the  Hall  go  and  see  Eltham 
Church;  not  that  it  is  aixhitecturally  remarkable,  but  in  the 
churchyard  will  be  found  a  tomb  to  Doggett,  the  comedian, 
who  bequeathed  the  coat  and  badge  still  rowed  for  every  1st 
of  August  by  the  "jolly  young  watermen"  of  the  Thames. 
Hence  we  can  get  back  to  Greenwich,  and  go  home  by 

Woolwich  can  be  reached  either  by  water,  or,  as  forming  a 
continuation  of  our  present  stroll  down  the  road,  we  can  turn 
off  by  the  sixth  mile-stone  and  go  through  Charlton,  or  take 
the  road  to  the  left  at  Shooter's  Hill,  Of  course  nearly 
all  the  interest  connected  with  AYoolwich  is  concentrated  in 
the  government  establishments,  which  are  acknowledged  to 
be  the  finest  in  the  world.  These,  consisting  of  the  Dockyard, 
Arsenal,  and  Royal  Military  Repository,  we  shall  describe  in 
the  rotation  generally  adopted  when  seeing  them.  Coming 
firom  Shooter's  Hill  and  crossing  Woolwich  Common,  the 
extensive  range  of  buildings  forming  the  barracks  of  the 
Royal  Artillery  first  attracts  attention.  The  principal  front 
extends  above  1,200  feet.  In  the  eastern  wing  is  the  chapel, 
containing  1,000  sittings,  and  the  other  principal  parts  of  the 
building  are  the  library  and  reading-room,  plentifully  supplied 
with  newspapers  and  periodicals.  The  whole  establishment 
affords  excellent  accommodation  for  upwards  of  4,000  men. 
The  troops,  when  on  parade,  present  a  very  animated  appear- 
ance. The  "Royal  Arsenal"  will  be  observed  but  a  short 
distance  off,  composed  of  several  buildings,  wherein  the  manu- 
facture of  implements  of  warfare  is  carried  on  upon  the  most 
extensive  scale.  On  entering  the  gateway  the  visitor  will  see 
the  "Foundry"  before  him,  provided  with  everything  neces- 
sary for  casting  the  largest  pieces  of  ordnance,  for  which,  as 
in  the  other  branches  of  manufacture,  steam  power  has  been 
lately  applied.  Connected  with  the  "  Pattern  Room,"  adjoin- 
ing, will  be  noticed  several  of  the  illuminations  and  devices 


used  in  St.  James's  Park  to  commemorate  the  peace  of  1814. 
The  "Laboratory"  exhibits  a  busy  scene,  for  here  are  made 
the  cartridges,  rockets,  fireworks,  and  the  other  chemical 
contrivances  for  warfare,  which,  though  full  of  "  sound  and 
fury,"  are  far  from  being  considered  amongst  the  enemy  as 
"  signifying  nothing."  To  the  north  are  the  storehouses,  wliere 
are  comprised  outfittings  for  15,000  cavalry  horses,  and 
accoutrements  for  service.  The  area  of  the  Arsenal  includes 
no  less  than  24,000  pieces  of  ordnance,  and  3,000,000  of 
cannon  balls  piled  up  in  huge  pyramids.  Tlie  "Repository" 
and  "Rotunda"  are  on  the  margin  of  the  Common,  to  the 
south  of  the  town,  and  contain  models  of  the  most  celebrated 
fortifications  in  Europe,  with  curiosities  innumerable.  To  the 
south-east  of  the  Repository  is  the  "  Royal  Military  Academy," 
for  the  education  of  the  cadets  in  all  the  branches  of  artilleiy 
and  engineering.  The  present  building,  partly  in  the  Eliza- 
bethan style,  was  erected  in  1805,  and  though  300  could  be 
accommodated,  the  number  of  cadets  at  present  does  not 
exceed  160.  In  going  from  the  Arsenal  to  the  Garrison  there 
will  be  noticed,  on  the  right  of  the  road,  an  extensive  building 
forming  the  head-quarters  of  the  Royal  Sappers  and  Miners. 
On  the  same  side  the  way  is  the  "Field  Artillery  Depot," 
where  the  guns  are  mounted  and  kept  in  readiness  for  instant 
action.  The  Hospital  is  to  the  left  of  the  Garrison  entrance, 
fitted  up  with  700  beds,  and  under  the  superintendance  of  the 
most  skilful  medical  officers.  Erom  the  Arsenal  we  proceed  to 
the  Dockyard,  which,  commencing  at  the  village  of  New 
Charlton  on  the  west,  extends  a  mile  along  the  banks  of  the 
river  to  the  east'.  There  are  two  large  dry  docks  for  the 
repair  of  vessels,  and  a  spacious  basin  for  receiving  vessels  of 
the  largest  size.  The  granite  docks,  and  the  Foundry  and 
Boiler-maker  department,  recently  added,  have  been  great 
improvements.  Timber  sheds,  mast-houses,  storehouses,  and 
ranges  of  massive  anchors,  give  a  very  busy  aspect  to  the 
place,  which  was  first  formed  in  the  reign  of  Henry  VIH., 
and  considerably  enlarged  by  Charles  I.    The  new  "  Royal 


Marine  Barracks,"  designed  by  Mr.  Crew,  and  just  finished 
cost  £100,000.  An  excellent  feature  is  the  kitchen,  appro- 
priated to  every  40  men,  so  that  the  meals  may  be  taken 
apart  from  the  bedroom.  There  is  also  a  school  attached  for 
200  boys  and  girls.  The  following  form  the  arrangements  of 
admission  to  the  above  important  buildings : — to  the  Arsenal, 
the  Koyal  Repository,  and  the  Dockyard,  free ;  the  hours 
being  from  9  till  11  a,m.,  and  1  till  4  p.m.  Visitors  are 
required  to  leave  their  names  at  the  gates.  The  other 
buildings  require  the  escort  of  one  of  the  principal  officers. 

Though  within  the  last  four  years  nearly  2,000  additional 
houses  have  been  built,  the  town  presents  few  inducements  for 
a  prolonged  visit,  and  has  no  feature  of  interest  in  itself 
whatever.  The  old  church  looks  better  at  a  distance  than 
close,  and  there  are  few  monuments  in  the  churchyard  bearing 
names  familiar  to  the  eye  and  ear.  Perhaps,  after  his  visit  to 
the  Arsenal,  the  visitor  will  feel  most  interested  in  that  to 
Schalch,  a  Swiss,  who  died  in  1776,  at  the  advanced  age  of 
ninety  years,  sixty  of  which  he  passed  as  superintendent  of 
the  Foundry  there.  Indeed  it  was  to  him  chiefly  that  the 
establishment  owed  its  origin,  for  he  was  the  cause  of  its 
removal  from  Moorfields,  and  the  improvements  made  in 
conducting  the  operations. 

From  Woolwich  we  have  the  choice  of  three  speedy  modes 
of  transit  to  town: — 1.  By  steamer  direct  to  London  Bridge 
and  "Westminster.  2.  By  steam  ferry  across  to  Blackwall,  and 
so  on  by  railway  to  Fenchurch  Street ;  and  3,  by  a  similar 
conveyance  to  the  new  station  of  the  Eastern  Counties  Rml- 
way,  on  the  Essex  banks  of  the  river,  which  brings  us  to 
Shoreditch.  The  excursionist  may  consult  his  own  con- 
venience for  preference  of  choice. 


3d,  m 




Gravesend,  despite  its  acknowledged  character  as  the 
"Watering-Place"  of  Cockaigne,  where  Londoners  diumally 
resort,  and  place  implicit  faith  in  the  salt  breezes  wafted  by  an 
easterly  wind  to  its  shores,  is  yet  one  of  the  most  pleasantly 
situated,  and  most  easily  attained,  of  all  the  places  throned 
upon  the  margin  of  the  Thames.  It  is,  moreover,  a  capital 
starting  point  for  a  series  of  excursions  through  the  finest 
parts  of  Kent,  and  has,  besides,  in  its  own  immediate  neigh- 
bourhood, some  tempting  allurements  to  the  summer  excur- 
sionist in  the  way  of  attractive  scenery  and  venerable  buildings. 
Having  previously  given  a  description  of  the  objects  passed 
down  the  river  as  far  as  Woolwich,  we  shall  resume  our 
details  from  that  point,  to  avoid  repetition. 

Off  Woolwich  will  be  observed  the  old  ships  known  as 
"The  Hulks,"  where  the  convicts,  working  in  gangs,  are 
employed  in  various  useful  works  for  the  benefit  of  that  com- 
munity whose  laws  they  have  violated.  After  passing  Half- 
way Jleach,  where  there  is  a  small  public  house,  known  as 
"  The  Half-way  House,"  indicating  that  point  (14|  miles  from 
London)  to  be  exactly  midway  between  London  Bridge  and 
Gravesend,  we  see  on  the  Essex  coast  Dagenham  Breach, 
where,  in  December,  1707,  the  tide  broke  through  the  dikes 
and  flooded  upwards  of  1,000  acres.  Erith  next  presents  its 
picturesque  church  and  wooded  uplands  to  the  right,  and  is  a 
tempting  village  to  loiter  in  when  opportunity  serves.    A  fine 

104  EKITH, 

pier,  at  which  the  boats  of  the  "Diamond"  Company  call,  has 
been  constructed  for  the  accommodation  of  those  who  embark  or 
disembark  here,  and  an  "  Arboretum,"  with  extensive  pleasure 
grounds,  has  been  recently  opened  to  attract  -visitors.  Erith 
Church  is  a  charming  study  for  either  artist  or  antiquary. 
The  ivy  which  clings  about  the  structure,  and  the  masses  of 
foliage  that  rise  beyond,  give  it  a  very  striking  aspect  The 
structure  consists  of  a  nave  and  chancel,  with  a  low  tower  and 
spire,  and  evidently  has  a  venerable  length  of  years,  for 
besides  the  date  of  some  of  its  monuments  going  back  as  far 
as  the  year  1420,  it  has  been  identified  as  the  spot  where 
King  John  and  the  Barons  drew  up  their  treaty  of  peace.  In 
the  south  chapel  is  an  alabaster  tomb,  much  mutilated,  to  the 
memory  of  Elizabeth  Countess  of  Shrewsbury,  and  her 
daughter  Anne,  Countess  of  Pembroke,  who  both  died  in  the 
reign  of  Elizabeth.  Adjacent  are  some  fine  brasses  in  good 
preservation,  though  the  inscriptions  attached  to  them  have 
been  quite  obliterated.  They  all  belong  to  the  Waldens, 
members  of  the  same  family.  Belvidere,  the  seat  of  Lord  Saye 
and  Sele,  is  an  elegant  mansion,  in  a  very  romantic  situation, 
commanding  extensive  views  over  the  country  round.  It  was 
rebuilt  towards  the  close  of  the  last  century,  and  contains 
some  fine  apartments  of  true  aristocratic  splendour.  From 
Northumberland  Heath,  a  spacious  tract  of  fertile  ground  in 
this  parish,  the  metropohtan  markets  are  largely  supplied 
with  Kentish  cherries,  and  in  the  neighbourhood  some  hand- 
some houses  and  villas  have  been  lately  erected.  East  India 
vessels  frequently  anchor  in  Erith  Beach  and  discharge  their 

Prtrfleet,  with  its  romantic  chalk  cliflls  and  excavations,  is 
next  visible  on  the  Essex  shore,  and  is  said  to  have  been  thus 
caUed  from  an  ejaculation  of  Queen  Elizabeth,  who  exclaimed, 
"Alas!  TOj  Poor  Fleet"  as  she  witnessed  from  this  spot  the 
departure  of  her  little  force  to  oppose  the  passage  of  the 
"Invincible"  Armada.  The  "poor  fleet"  having  returned 
victorious,  the  place  became  thus  designated  in  memory  of  the 


event,  but  it  seems  to  have  been  after  all  but  a  sorry  royal 
puu,  for  in  the  time  of  Edward  the  Third  it  was  called  the 
manor  of  Portflete,  and  then  belonged  to  the  Knights  of  Saint 
John  of  Jerusalem.  Here  the  Government  Powder  Magazine 
is  kept,  having  been,  in  the  year  1762,  removed  hence  from 
Greenwich.  About  three  million  pounds  of  gunpowder  are 
generally  preserved  in  the  building,  which  of  course  has  been 
so  constructed  that  no  danger  by  explosion  need  be  appre- 
hended. Lightning  conductors  are  affixed  to  the  exterior,  and 
the  usual  regulations  are  observed  when  entering.  Across  the 
open  country,  on  the  Kentish  side,  may  be  seen  the  ancient 
cliurch  of  Dartford,  a  creek  where  the  river  Darent  or  Dart 
discharges  its  watei's  into  the  Thames,  affording  a  navigable 
communication  with  the  town.  Dartford  was  an  important 
Eoman  station,  and  is  memorable  in  history  as  the  scene  of 
Wat  Tyler's  insurrection  in  1382.  There  are  still  some 
remains  of  a  nunnery  founded  by  Edward  III.,  and  the 
powder  mills  and  iron  foundries  of  Messrs.  Hall  give  great 
importance  to  the  traffic  carried  on  by  the  inhabitants. 

Greenhithe,  which  -we  next  pass,  has  several  neat  residences 
within  its  limits,  occupying  very  pleasant  situations ;  but, 
beyond  the  pier,  and  a  small  parish  church  at  Swanscombe, 
has  no  feature  calling  for  special  mention.  The  stately 
mansion  seen  from  the  river  is  "  Ingress  Abbey,"  the  seat  of 
J.  Harmer,  Esq.,  and  is  chiefly  composed  of  the  stone 
obtained  from  old  London  Bridge  when  it  was  pulled  down. 
Swanscombe  Wood,  at  the  back,  is  a  rare  spot  for  pic-nic 
parties,  and  has  a  cavern  rejoicing  in  the  appellation  of 
"  Clappernapper's  Hole,"  with  some  smuggling  traditions  in 
connection  with  it.  Here  it  was  that  the  men  of  Kent  stopped 
the  Norman  Conqueror,  and  compelled  him  to  concede  the 
ancient  privilege  of  Gavelkind.  West  Thurrock,  on  the 
opposite  side  the  river,  is  devoid  of  anything  to  win  more 
than  a  passing  glance,  though  Belmont  Castle,  a  fine  castel- 
lated edifice  belonging  to  a  gentleman  named  Webb,  is  in  a 
very  agreeable  position.    From  Greenhithe  to  Grays — a  small 

106  BOSHEBriLLE. 

market-town  on  the  Essex  coast,  with  a  new  pier  and 
numerous  brick-kilns — the  river  is  called  St.  Clement's  Reach; 
and  we  then  enter  Northfleet  Hope,  where  the  widened 
expanse  shows  us  the  approach  to  Gravesend,  and  the 
straggling  buildings  of  Northfleet  poised  upon  a  range  of 
chalk  cMs. 

Northfleet  has  an  ancient  church,  one  of  the  largest  in 
Kent,  containing  several  monuments  of  interesting  antiquity, 
among  which  will  be  found  one  to  Dr.  Brown,  physician 
to  Charles  11.,  and  some  curious  brasses  of  the  fourteenth 
century.  The  extensive  excavations  about  here,  forming  a 
sort  of  miniature  Switzerland,  not  only  give  the  scenery  a 
wild  and  romantic  aspect,  but  furnish  valuable  materials  for 
the  potteries.  RosherviUe,  though  a  suburb  of  Gravesend, 
belongs  to  this  parish,  and  its  neat  pier  is  soon  seen  to  the 
right,  forming  an  elegant  communication  with  that  extensive 
range  of  buildings  erected  a  few  years  since  on  the  estate  of 
the  late  Jeremiah  Rosher.  The  RosherviUe  Gardens  are  open 
daily  to  the  public,  at  the  moderate  admission  fee  of  sixpence, 
and  present  a  combination  of  attractions,  produced  by  the 
united  agency  of  nature  and  art,  that  leave  them  almost 
without  a  rival.  It  is  absolutely  astonishing  to  see  what  a 
fairy-land  has  been  here  created  out  of  a  chalk-pit  There  are 
gala  nights  throughout  the  summer,  when  fireworks,  music, 
and  illuminations  are  added  to  the  other  enchantments  of 
the  spot  The  Clifton  Baths,  on  what  is  called  "  The  Parade," 
are  commodiously  fitted  up  for  cold,  shower,  warm,  and 
vapour  bathing,  and  seem  to  have  been  built  in  grotesque 
mimicry  of  the  Pavilion  at  Brighton. 

Gravesend  has  from  the  river  a  varied  and  pleasing  aspect, 
which  is  not  destroyed  by  a  more  intimate  acquaintance  with 
the  town.  Passengers  by  the  boats  of  the  "  Star"  Company 
are  disembarked  at  the  RosherviUe  and  Terrace  Piers  ;  those 
by  the  "  Diamond  "  at  the  Town  Pier.  The  latter,  formed  of 
cast  iron,  belongs  to  the  corporation,  and  leads  up  through 
the  narrow  High  Street,  studded  with  taverns,  to  the  London 


Eoad  The  Terrace  Pier,  projecting  on  22  cast  iron  columns 
nearly  200  feet  into  the  river,  leads  direct  to  Harmer  Street 
and  Windmill  Hill,  besides  affording  a  convenient  approach 
to  the  elegant  surburban  district  of  Milton.  The  Terrace 
Gardens,  on  each  side  the  entrance  to  the  pier,  are  really  very 
creditably  and  tastefully  laid  out,  and  as  a  day-admission- 
ticket  can  be  had  for  twopence,  expense  is  no  obstacle  to  the 
public  frequenting  them.  Directly  you  traverse  the  streets  of 
Gravesend  you  see  at  a  glance  for  what  the  town  is  famous. 
Shrimps  and  watercresses  tempt  the  visitor  in  every  possible 
variety  of  supply,  and  places  where  both  are  obtainable,  with 
"  Tea  at  ninepence  a  head,"  are  in  wonderful  numerical 
strength.  Like  all  other  resorts  for  London  visitors,  tavema 
and  tea  gardens  are  abundant ;  their  name  is  legion,  and 
most  of  them  have  mazes,  archery  grounds,  and  "  gipsy  tents" 
attached,  where  the  inquisitive  that  way  can  purchase  the 
pi'ophecy  of  a  magnificent  fortune  for  the  smallest  sum  in 
silver.  Apartments  can  be  had  in  nearly  every  house,  and, 
from  the  recognised  salubrity  of  the  air,  and  the  beauty  of  the 
scenery  surrounding,  they  are  rarely  untenanted  during  the 
height  of  the  summer  season.  There  is  an  excellent  market, 
held  every  AVednesday  and  Saturday;  a  Town  Hall,  built  in 
1836;  a  Literary  Institution,  with  a  library,  billiard-rooms, 
and  assembly-rooms  inclusive,  built  in  1842;  churches  and 
chapels  in  abundance ;  numerous  libraries  and  bazaars ;  water- 
works on  the  summit  of  Windmill  Hill ;  baths  by  the  river, 
and  a  commodious  Custom  House  near  the  Terrace  Gardens, 
Those  who  like  to  bathe  in  something  approximating  to  salt 
water  should  be  governed  by  the  influx  of  the  tide,  at  which 
time  an  ablution  that  may  be  called  a  "Sea-bath"  can  be 
indulged  in  Avith  more  personal  gratification.  Windmill  HiU 
is,  however,  the  magnet  of  the  multitude,  and  a  pleasanter  or 
more  varied  panorama  than  that  to  be  obtained  from  its 
summit  is  not  to  be  found  in  places  of  much  higher  preten- 
sions. There  is  one  of  the  best  view^s  of  the  Thames  winding 
between  the  shores  of  Kent  and  Essex,  and,  on  every  side,  a 


far-spread  landscape  that  embraces  the  shipping  at  the  Nore, 
Southend  Pier,  Knockholt  Beeches,  on  the  very  verge 
Sussex,  and  a  range  of  country  spangled  with  clustered 
cottages  and  distant  masses  of  woodland,  that  displays  around 
a  picture  of  unrivalled  luxuriance  and  fertility.  The  Hill  is 
crowned  by  an  excellent  tavern,  called  "  The  Belle  Vue,"  to 
the  proprietor  of  which  belongs  the  old  windmill — the  first 
erected  in  England,  and  as  old  in  its  foundations  as  the  days 
of  Edward  IIL  Here  refreshments  are  provided  on  the  largest 
and  most  liberal  scale,  and  an  admirable  Camera,  together 
Mrith  some  pleasure  grounds,  and  a  labyrinth  of  ingenious 
construction,  offer  the  best  and  most  captivating  allurements 
to  visitors.  Of  late  years  every  available  spot  has  been  built 
upon  about  the  hill,  and  on  a  fine  day  thousands  of  our 
metropolitan  denizens,  lea\'ing  the  purlieus  of  the  smoke- 
environed  city,  may  be  seen  here,  scattered  over  its  sloping 
sides,  participating  in  the  healthful  enjoyment  it  affords,  and 
breathing  the  purer  and  firesher  atmosphere  of  its  elevated 
region.  Those  aquatically  disposed  will  find  it  worth  their 
while  to  take  a  boat  across  the  river  to  Tilbury  Fort,  opposite, 
which  was  built  by  Henry  VIIL,  to  guard  this  portion  of  the 
river,  and  visitors  are  permitted,  on  application  to  the  resident 
governor,  to  inspect  the  fortifications.  Returning  to  Graves- 
end,  the  environs  will  be  found  replete  with  rural  walks  to 
gratify  the  eye  and  mind  of  the  rambler.  At  Sprinyhead, 
where  there  is  a  watercress  plantation  of  considerable  extent, 
will  be  seen  the  Cemetery,  neatly  laid  out,  and  covering  an 
extent  of  about  six  acres.  But,  of  all  the  places  round,  none 
should  neglect  an  excursion  to  Cobham,  four  miles  distant, 
where,  in  the  old  wood  and  hall,  a  day's  enjoyment  can  be 
most  fully  ensured.  There  are  several  vehicles  always  ready 
to  be  hired,  that  will  take  the  visitor  at  a  reasonable  rate  by 
the  road ;  but  as  those  who  can  appreciate  a  delightful  walk 
will  not  find  the  distance  too  fatiguing,  we  shall  proceed  to 
indicate  the  route  for  the  pedestrian.  The  Hall  and  Picture 
Gallery  are  open  to  the  public  every  Friday ;  admission  is  by 

COBHAM.  109 

tickets,  price  one  shilling  each,  supplied  at  Caddel's  Lihrary, 
and  the  proceeds  thus  resulting  are  applied  to  the  school  and 
other  free  institutions  of  the  neighbourhood. 

Taking  the  footpath  at  the  back  of  "Windmill  Hill,  the 
pedestrian  will  find  it  traversing  a  picturesque  country,  now 
crossing  the  sweeping  undulation  of  a  cornfield,  and  anon 
skirting  a  shaded  copse  with  bluebells  and  primroses  starting 
up  in  prodigal  luxuriance  through  the  tangled  underwood. 
We  next  pass  through  a  hop-plantation,  and  in  summer,  when 
the  bine  has  sprung  up  to  the  top  of  the  poles,  and  the  shoots 
have  thrust  themselves  ofi"  to  the  next,  and  so  joined  in  a 
leafy  communion  of  luxuriant  vegetation,  the  scene  becomes 
truly  Arcadian,  and  an  excellent  substitute  for  the  vineyards 
of  the  south.  Leaving  the  little  village  of  Singlewell  to  the 
right,  we  have  a  finger  post  to  guide  us,  and  a  few  minutes 
after  reach  the  outskirts  of  this  sequestered  village.  The  first 
object  to  which  the  visitor  will  naturally  direct  his  attention  is 
the  old  church,  occupying  rising  ground  in  nearly  the  centre 
of  the  parish,  and  having  on  the  southern  side  an  extensive 
view.  The  antiquarian  may  here  enjoy  a  great  treat  in 
inspecting  the  ancient  monuments  to  be  found  in  the  interior, 
as  there  are  several  brasses  of  the  Cobham  family,  successive 
generations  of  which,  from  the  year  1354,  have  lived  and  died 
in  the  parish,  as  these  memorials  testify.  On  an  altar-monu- 
ment, in  the  middle  of  the  chancel,  are  two  full  length  effigies, 
with  several  children  around  them  in  a  kneeling  position. 
This  was  erected  to  the  memory  of  George  Lord  Cobham, 
who  had  been  the  Governor  of  Calais  in  the  reign  of  Elizabeth, 
and  who  died  in  1558.  On  the  tomb  of  Maud  de  Cobham  is 
a  cmious  sculptured  figure  of  a  dog,  and  one  similar  will  be 
found  in  the  chancel  on  the  tomb  of  Joan,  wife  of  Keginald 
Braybroke.,  They  are  worthy  notice,  as  exemplifying  the 
attachment  felt  towards  two  faithful  canine  adherents  to  the 
fortunes  of  the  family.  Outside,  on  the  southern  wall,  there 
are  some  elegant  tablets  too  of  the  Darnley  family,  and 
around  are  many  humbler  tombs  bearing  quaint  and  curious 

110  COBHAH. 

inscriptions.  In  such  a  scene  we  can  aiFord  to  smile  at  the 
hacknied  quotations,  the  recurrence  of  the  same  breaches  of 
grammar,  the  inroads  upon  the  laws  of  poetry  and  the 
common- sense  of  prose.  Occasionally,  however,  we  meet  with 
epitaphs  endowed  with  a  keen  perception  of  beauty,  or 
indicatiye  of  strong  natural  feeling,  and  these  cannot  but 
excite  a  solemn  pleasure  in  the  heart  of  the  rural  pedestrian. 
At  the  back  of  the  church  are  some  almshouses  for  the 
reception  of  twenty  poor  people,  who  have  each  a  quarter  of 
an  acre  of  land,  and  a  monthly  stipend  of  eighteen  shillings. 
It  was  originally  founded  in  1362.  The  inmates  of  this 
ancient  building,  dignified  with  the  name  of  a  college,  are 
nominated  respectively  by  the  proprietor  of  Cobham  Hall,  the 
wardens  of  Rochester  Bridge,  and  the  neighbouring  parishes. 
Passing  through  the  village  which  the  readers  of  "  Pickmck" 
will  remember  to  have  been  the  scene  of  one  of  the  most 
humorous  adventures  of  that  reno\\"ned  "  Club,"  we  proceed 
to  the  old  Hall,  bearing  the  name  of  a  family  that,  from  the 
reign  of  King  John  to  the  accession  of  James  I.,  was  amongst 
the  most  eminent  in  the  country.  Before  describing  the 
building  it  will  not  be  uninteresting  to  glance  at  the  history 
of  its  former  o\vners.  In  the  15th  century  the  Cobham  estate 
belonged  to  Joan,  grand-daughter  and  heiress  of  John  Lord 
Cobham.  This  lady  had  no  less  than  five  husbands,  one  of 
them  being  the  celebrated  Sir  John  Oldcastle,  who  assumed 
the  title  of  Cobham.  Sir  John,  who  had  been  the  intimate 
friend  of  Henry  V.  in  his  younger  days,  and  in  whom  some 
have  erroneously  detected  the  original  of  Sir  John  Falstafl', 
was  soon  after  charged  by  the  clergy  with  favouring  the 
Lollards,  and  inciting  "  grievous  heresy"  in  the  king's 
dominions.  In  the  proclamation  issued  by  the  King  it  is 
declared  that  the  Lollards  meant  to  destroy  him,  confiscate 
the  possessions  of  the  church,  and  appoint  Sir  John  Oldcastle 
president  of  the  Commonwealth.  He  was  in  consequence 
taken  prisoner,  in  1616,  and,  after  an  obstinate  resistance,  was 
sentenced  to  be  banged  as  a  traitor  and  burned  as  a  heretic. 


The  estates,  however,  remained  in  the  possession  of  his  widow, 
who  died  in  1433,  and  from  this  period  till  1596  they  de- 
scended in  lineal  succession.  In  that  year  they  came  into  the 
possession  of  Henry  Lord  Cobham,  who  was  Lord  Warden  of 
the  Cinque  Ports,  Constable  of  Dover  Castle,  and  Lord 
Lieutenant  of  the  county.  In  1603  this  nobleman  was 
accused,  with  others,  of  having  been  concerned  in  Sir  Walter 
Raleigh's  conspiracy,  and  being  brought  to  trial  at  Winches- 
ter, on  account  of  the  plague  then  raging  in  London,  they 
were  found  guilty  and  judgment  of  death  recorded.  The 
brother  of  Lord  Cobham  was  executed,  but  in  his  own  case 
the  sentence  was  remitted,  and  the  estate  being  confiscated,  he 
was  reduced  to  the  greatest  poverty,  his  death,  in  1619,  being 
accelerated  through  absolute  want.  Having  thus  fallen  into 
possession  of  the  Crown,  the  manor  of  Cobham  was  granted 
by  James  I.  to  James  Stewart,  one  of  his  own  kinsmen,  who 
seems  with  his  successor  not  to  have  exhibited  very  thrifty 
management,  for  the  house  and  grounds  were  sold  at  the 
close  of  the  17th  century  to  enable  the  owner  to  satisfy  his 
creditors.  The  price  given  furnishes  a  curious  contrast  with 
that  which  would  be  realized  in  the  present  day.  The  deer 
park,  with  the  paddocks,  containing  as  by  survey  830  acres, 
was  only  valued  at  ten  shillings  the  acre,  the  timber,  woods, 
&c.,  being  all  included.  It  is  also  incidentally  mentioned  that 
at  this  time  the  mansion,  which  cost  £60,000  building,  had 
fourteen  acres  of  orchard  and  garden-ground  attached. 

The  remainder  of  its  history  may  be  briefly  told.  In  1714 
the  Hall  and  estate  came  by  man-iage  into  the  possession  of 
an  Irish  family  of  the  name  of  Bligh,  one  of  whom,  in  1725, 
was  created  Earl  of  Darnley,  and  the  seat  of  the  Earls  of 
Darnley  it  has  continued  to  be  ever  since.  The  Hall  is  a 
massive  and  stately  structure,  consisting  of  two  wings  and 
a  noble  centre,  the  work  of  Inigo  Jones.  The  oldest  portions 
are  those  at  the  two  extremities,  flanked  with  octagonal 
towers,  but  modern  art,  in  contributing  the  sashed  windows 
and   brickwork  facing,   has  increased  the  comfort  of  the 

112  COBHAM. 

mansion  at  the  expense  of  the  picturesque.  The  Picture 
Gallery,  having  a  choice  collection  of  paintings  by  the  old 
masters,  and  the  unique  gilt  hall,  form  the  most  prominent 
features  of  attraction  in  the  interior,  but  the  apartments 
besides  are  elegantly  furnished,  and  the  quadrangle  and  old 
brick  passages  of  the  outbuildings  wear  about  them  an 
aspect  of  unmistakeable  antiquity.  On  the  south  side,  leading 
up  to  the  principal  entrance,  is  a  noble  lime  tree  avenue, 
extending  upwards  of  3,000  feet  in  length.  In  the  park, 
which  is  nearly  seven  miles  round,  there  are  some  noble  oak 
and  chesnut  trees,  many  of  them  measuring  twenty  feet  and 
upwards  in  circumference.  It  has  also  the  reputation  of  pro- 
ducing venison  of  superior  flavour,  derived  from  the  peculiar 
excellence  of  the  herbage,  and  it  was  on  this  fare  probably 
that  both  Queen  Elizabeth  and  Charles  11.  were  regaled  when 
they  visited  Cobham ;  for  the  former,  according  to  Strype, 
was  welcomed  with  a  "  delectable  banquet  and  great  cheer." 
In  a  romantic  spot,  towards  the  south-east  end  of  the  park, 
on  an  eminence  called  "  William's  Hill,"  there  is  a  spacious 
mausoleum,  erected,  in  1783,  by  the  present  Lord  Damley's 
grandfather.  It  is  built  of  Portland  stone,  in  an  octagonal 
form,  after  the  Doric  order,  and  cost  £9,000,  but,  never  having 
been  consecrated,  it  has  not  been  devoted  to  the  purpose  for 
which  it  was  intended. 

Cobham  Wood  is  a  glorious  region  for  the  rambler,  and  the 
footpath  to  Rochester,  through  the  very  heart  of  its  sylvan 
solitudes,  a  delightiiil  track  to  follow.  The  pedestrian  can 
also  return,  through  the  wood  and  Upper  Shome,  to  Graves- 
end  by  way  of  Chalk.  Either  way,  a  day's  enjoyment  here 
is  complete.  The  countless  hordes  of  wild  flowers,  the  golden 
treasures  of  the  prickly  gorse,  the  dark  green  majesty  of  the 
fern — that  always  looks  to  us  like  a  miniature  resemblance  to 
those  Eastern  trees  spoken  of  in  the  "  Arabian  Nights" — and 
all  these  spangled  with  the  beads  of  sunlight,  flung  down, 
through  the  spreading  branches  overhead,  from  the  azure 
canopy  above,  and  there  is  here  enough  and  more  than 


enough  to  drive  away  from  the  heart  every  sign  of  care  and 
worldly  grievance.  It  is  no  slight  addition  to  the  picturesque 
charms  of  the  forest  foliage  if  you  can  wait  and  watch  the 
eifect  of  the  sunset,  marking  the  rich  gradations  of  light  and 
shade  in  which  the  quivering  leaves  ai-e  alternately  steeped. 
In  fact  there  is  many  a  less  interesting  place  to  loiter  in  than 
Cobham  Wood,  and  the  dreamy  tone  imparted  to  the  mental 
faculties  by  such  a  meditative  lounge  is  a  sort  of  warm  bath 
for  the  imagination,  refreshing  it  with  a  reverie  which  will 
enable  the  every-day  realities  of  life  to  be  more  vigorously 
grappled  with,  and  more  successfully  turned  to  advantage.* 

The  whole  country  round  here  is  fuU  of  temptations  for  the 
erratic  rambler,  and  the  winding  green  lanes  and  quiet  foot- 
paths, that  lead  away  from  Cobham  to  the  secluded  villages 
towards  the  south,  are  enough  to  make  a  staid,  sober  citizen, 
who  cherishes  an  intrusive  recollection  of  dismal  counting- 
houses  and  thefr  commercial  concomitants,  envy  that  reckless 
freedom  and  joyous  liberty  possessed  by  the  wandering 
vagrants  whom  he  will  occasionally  encounter  on  the  road. 
It  is  just  the  region  where  imagination  lends  a  ray  of  ideal 
beauty  to  even  the  most  trite  occurrences  of  such  a  roaming 
life  as  that  of  the  gipsy.  We  feel  momentarily  fascinated  with 
that  glorious  embodiment  of  the  poetry  of  vagabondism — that 
sunny  existence  spent  in  bye  roads  and  bosky  dells,  tented  by 
the  spreading  branches  of  fine  old  oaks,  and  sheltered  by 
Nature's  awnings  from  the  summer  rays — that  reUc  of  the 
eastern  clime,  which  serves  as  a  picturesque  inroad  on  the 
dull  conventionalities  of  country  living,  and  throws  a  dash  of 
romantic  adventure  into  a  chance  encounter  with  the  tribe. 
Yet  with  whatever  alluring  colours  fancy  may  invest  the 
gipsy  life,  another  moment's  reflection  soon  dispels  the 
illusion,  by  reminding  us  that  the  aspect  under  which  they 

*  For  farther  particulars  connected  with  Gravesend  and  the  scenery  of 
the  coast  see  "  Adams's  Guide  to  the  Watcrinp-Places  of  England,"  in 
■which  a  complete  description  is  given  of  all  the  most  admired  marina 
resorts  throughout  England,  the  Channel  Islands,  &c. 


\'iew  their  career  is  widely  different  to  what  seems  apparent 
to  an  unconcerned  observer;  and  that,  although  daily  sur- 
rounded by  landscapes  of  rural  beauty  and  sublimity,  a  want 
of  mental  refinement  disqualifies  them  for  the  thorough  enjoy- 
ment of  the  scenes  by  which  they  are  environed.  But  to 
those  with  an  imagination  properly  constructed  there  is  an 
extraordinary  charm  about  a  ramble  of  this  kind.  We  put  off 
all  the  grating  cares  and  petty  annoyances  of  life  when  we 
put  on  our  easy  boots.  We  become  ourselves  the  very 
incarnation  of  happiness;  the  pink — possibly  not  of  perfection 
— but  of  pleasantry;  and  in  short,  if  the  proper  state  of  mind 
has  been  duly  attained,  a  day's  ramble  in  Cobham  Wood  will 
make  one  of  those  "  green  spots  in  memory's  waste"  on  which 
it  is  so  delightful  afterwards  to  repose,  and  listlessly  ruminate 
over  cheerful  retrospections: — 

"  As  when  in  ocean  sinks  the  orh  of  day, 
Long  on  the  wave  reflected  lustres  play ; 
These  once  bright  scenes  of  days  left  far  behind. 
Glance  on  the  darkened  mirror  of  the  mind." 



From  Gravesend  to  Rochester  the  excursionist  has  now  the 
choice  of  road  or  rail.  Trains  start  every  hour  throughout  the 
day,  and  omnibuses  likewise  depart  on  the  arrival  of  each 
steamboat  from  London.  The  Gravesend  and  Roclicster 
Railway  runs  parallel  with  the  Thames  and  Medway  Canal, 
now  filled  up  below  Higham,  and  passes  through  a  tunnel 
two  miles  in  length.  As  the  road  presents  a  greater  variety  of 
scenery  we  shall  indicate  the  objects  passed  by  that  route  in 
preference.  Just  out  of  Gravesend,  crossing  the  line  of  rail- 
way in  prospective  communication  with  the  Terminus  by 
London  Bridge,  we  pass  Milton  Church,  a  venerable  edifice, 
which,  though  recently  modernised,  has  still  some  portions 
remaining  of  the  old  tower  built  in  the  15th  century.  On  the 
other  side  of  Chalk  is  Chalk  Church,  one  of  the  most  ancient 
in  England,  and  having  over  the  porch  some  cui'ious  sculp- 
tured figures  that  have  long  perplexed  antiquaries  to  account 
for  their  origin.  The  road  then  winds  over  Gad's  HDl, 
the  scene  of  Falstaff's  imaginary  encounter  with  the  men 
in  "  buckram,"  and  the  Shaksperian  adventure  on  which  is 
perpetuated  by  the  signboard  of  a  roadside  tavern  laying  in 
the  hollow  beyond.  A  short  distance  further  and  the  grey 
towers  of  Rochester  Castle,  rising  above  the  surrounding 
buildings,  meet  our  view,  forming  a  picture,  as  we  descend 
the  hill  towards  Strood,  of  great  interest  and  beauty.  Strood, 
I  2 


though  an  ancient  place,  now  derives  all  its  importance  from 
its  vicinity  to  Rochester;  so  crossing  the  stone  bridge,  560  feet 
long,  which  spans  the  Medway — here  winding  on  through 
cultivated  meadows  and  fertile  uplands — we  at  once  enter  the 
precincts  of  this  time-hallowed  cathedral  city. 

Rochester  is  believed  to  have  been  a  British  town  long 
before  the  Roman  invasion,  and  from  ancient  documents  the 
city  appejirs  to  have  been  walled  round  at  least  as  early  as  the 
time  of  the  first  Ethelbert  The  bridge  itself  is  one  of  the 
finest  old  bridges  in  England,  and  was  built,  in  1392,  by  Sir 
Robert  Knowles,  a  reno^vned  miUtary  knight  of  the  court  of 
Edward  III.  If  the  Saxons  had  a  castle  here  no  portion  of 
such  building  remains,  for  the  oldest  fragments  of  the  present 
ruin  are  in  the  early  Norman  style ;  and  most  probably  this 
was  one  of  the  many  fortresses  erected  by  William  the  Con- 
queror. Embosomed  amidst  the  finest  scenery  in  all  Kent, 
Rochester  Castle  stands  also  in  an  extremely  favorable  posi- 
tion for  defence,  occupying  the  south-west  angle  of  the  city, 
on  an  eminence  rising  abruptly  from  the  Medway.  Here  and 
there  are  vestiges  of  the  outward  walls,  which  formed  an 
irregular  parallelogram  of  about  three  hundred  feet  in  length, 
strengthened  by  square  and  round  towers,  provided  vnth. 
loop-holes  and  machicolations ;  but  these,  with  the  walls 
themselves,  are  fast  crumbling  into  decay.  The  composition 
used  in  their  structure  was  the  Kentish  ragstone,  cemented  by 
a  strong  grout  or  mortar,  in  which  immense  quantities  of  sea- 
shells  were  embedded,  acquiring  from  age  a  consistency  equal  if 
not  superior  to  stone  itself.  Eour  centuries  have  elapsed  since 
the  castle  was  last  repaired,  and  the  deep  ditch,  which  formerly 
defended  the  north,  south,  and  east  sides,  is  now  filled  up.  Of 
all  the  fragments  of  the  towers  remaining  none  equal  in 
extent  and  durabiUty  those  of  "  Gundulph's  Tower,"  which 
was  erected  by  that  busy  builder  and  bishop  whose  name  it 
bears.  It  is  of  a  quadrangular  form,  112  feet  high,  and  70  feet 
long  at  the  base.  The  walls,  as  they  rise  from  the  ground, 
incline  slightly  inwards.    Ascending  tlie  winding  stairs,  of 


about  six  feet  in  width,  and  which,  now  much  decayed,  open 
into  every  apartment,  we  see  to  advantage  the  upper  stories  of 
this  decayed  and  roofless  ruin.  The  state  apartments  appear 
to  have  been  in  the  third  story,  where  there  are  still  four 
arched  doorways,  richly  ornamented,  and  18  feet  in  height, 
with  a  column  dividing  each  of  about  four  feet  in  diameter. 
Through  the  partition  walls  a  well,  nearly  three  feet  in 
diameter,  ascends  to  the  summit,  communicating  on  its  way 
with  each  floor  of  the  building.  The  roof  of  the  highest  room 
is  93  feet  in  height  from  the  ground,  and  beyond  this  there  is 
an  uncovered  battlement  rising  seven  feet  higher.  The  turrets 
at  the  four  corners  ascend  to  the  height  of  12  feet  above  the 
battlement,  and  hence  there  is  a  magnificent  view  over  the 
valley  of  the  Mcdway  and  the  country  round,  inclusive  of  the 
city  below  and  the  heights  of  Chatham.  AH  the  rooms  have 
fire-places,  but,  in  e's-idence  of  the  discomfort  that  prevailed 
in  the  "  good  old  times,"  there  is  not  the  slightest  indication 
of  a  chimney,  the  smoke  passing  through  a  mere  hole  in  the 
wall,  which  with  other  openings  served  for  the  admission  of 
light  and  air. 

Rochester  Cathedral,  one  of  the  oldest  ecclesiastical  edifices 
in  England,  stands  near  the  middle  of  the  city,  a  little  to  the 
south  of  the  High  Street.  It  was  founded  as  long  ago  as  the  year 
604,  but  the  principal  portion  was  erected  by  Gundulph  in  the 
11th  century.  William  Lambarde,  in  his  "Perambulation  of 
the  County  of  Kent,"  speaking  of  Gundulph,  who  was  Bishop 
of  Rochester  for  above  30  years,  says  "  he  never  rested  from 
building  and  begging,  tricking  and  garnishing,  until  he 
had  erected  his  idol  building  to  the  wealth,  beauty,  and 
estimation  of  a  popish  priory."  The  architecture  is  of  the 
early  Norman  style,  or  that  which  preceded  what  is  com- 
monly called  the  Gothic;  it  has  been  considerably  repaired  of 
late,  and  in  1840  the  whole  structure  undenvent  a  general 
renovation  and  improvement.  Between  the  years  1827  and 
1834  no  less  than  £14,000  was  spent  in  the  repairs.  The 
edifice  forms  a  double  cross,  and  at  the  intersection  of  the 


transepts  is  a  tower,  erected  in  1825.  The  entire  length  of  the 
cathedral  from  east  to  west  is  306  feet.  The  western  and 
principal  entrance  is  enriched  with  a  liberal  display  of  florid 
architectural  ornaments,  hut  it  has  been  considerably  defaced 
by  time  and  the  Parliamentary  soldiers,  who  are  said  to  have 
conTerted  one  part  of  the  cathedral  into  a  carpenter's  shop 
and  the  other  into  an  ale-house.  On  each  side  of  the  door 
are  a  row  of  small  pillars  supporting  a  corresponding  series  of 
arches.  Two  of  the  pillars  are  fashioned  into  statues  repre- 
senting Henry  I.  and  his  Queen  Matilda,  in  whose  time,  and 
chiefly  from  whose  money,  the  structure  was  raised.  Under 
the  arch  there  is  a  curious  carving  representing  our  Saviour 
sitting  in  a  niche,  ^vith  an  angel  on  each  side,  and  the  twelve 
apostles  at  his  feet  in  a  lower  border,  but  the  design  is  far 
from  being  intelligible.  Above  is  a  large  window,  evidently 
the  work  of  a  later  age,  and  indeed  the  windows  throughout, 
together  with  the  roof,  manifestly  have  a  more  recent  origin. 
The  interior  contains  some  attractive  monuments,  and  several 
of  the  early  bishops  are  buried  in  the  crypt  underneath,  which 
is  very  spacious.  The  whole  is  well  worthy  the  outlay  of  the 
small  fee  for  which,  with  the  castle,  it  may  be  viewed. 
Rochester  has,  besides  the  cathedral,  two  churches  remaining 
out  of  the  four  it  once  had,  and  these  are  very  ancient.  Saint 
Nicholas'  Church  was  built  in  1421,  and  St.  Margaret's,  much 
modernised,  has  a  curious  stone  font  and  some  old  monu- 
ments. In  the  upper  part  of  High  Street  is  an  antique 
endowment,  called  "  The  Poor  Traveller's  House,"  where  a 
frugal  breakfast  and  supper,  together  with  fourpence  when 
leading,  could  be  obtained  by  all  wayfarers  who  were  not, 
according  to  the  inscription,  either  "Eogues  or  Proctors." 
About  four  miles  north-east  of  Rochester  may  be  seen  the 
ruins  of  Cowling  Castle,  of  which  the  gateway,  flanked  by 
two  large  semicircular  towers,  and  an  ivy-cro^vncd  turret, 
near  it,  alone  remain.  It  was  besieged  by  Sir  Thomas  Wyatt 
in  the  reign  of  Queen  Mary,  and  soon  after  nearly  demolished, 
the  area  now  enclosing  a  large  tract  used  as  a  farm.    On  the 

CHATHAM.  119 

Other  side  of  Rochester  Bridge  an  excursion  up  the  Medway 
to  Maidstone  will  be  found  replete  with  panoramic  diversity 
of  scenery. 

Chat/iam — so  closely  contiguous  to  Eochester  that  the 
buildings  form  a  line  of  communication  between  the  two 
places — was  originally  a  small  village,  and  owes  all  its  im- 
portance to  the  extensive  dockyard  and  garrison,  which  ever 
invest  it  with  a  lively  and  busy  appearance.  The  entrance  to 
the  dockyard  is  through  a  lofty  gateway,  ornamented  with 
an  embattled  tower  on  each  side,  and  leading  to  an  extensive 
area  nearly  a  mile  in  length.  Besides  four  wet  docks,  capable 
of  receiving  first  rate  men  of  war,  a  new  stone  dock  has  been 
lately  constructed  on  a  still  larger  scale.  Along  the  banks 
are  numerous  storehouses — one  of  which  is  660  feet  in  length 
— capacious  magazines,  a  chapel,  six  slips  or  launches,  and 
the  commodious  residences  belonging  to  the  officers  connected 
with  the  various  departments.  The  artificers  employed  in  the 
dockyard  are  in  time  of  war  above  3,000  in  number.  To  the 
west  of  the  docks,  on  a  narrow  slip  of  land  between  the 
church  and  the  river,  is  the  ordnance  wharf,  where  huge  tiers 
of  cannon  and  pyramids  of  shot  are  stored  away,  for  uses  to 
which  let  us  hope  they  will  have  no  occasion  to  be  put.  The 
baiTacks  at  Brompton  are  exceedingly  large,  and  afford 
accommodation  to  an  enormous  force,  some  estimate  of  which 
may  be  gathered  from  the  census  taken  in  1841  giving  the 
resident  marine  and  military  population  of  Chatham  at  6,505. 
The  hospitals  attached  are  on  the  most  liberal  scale  of 
comfort  and  expenditure,  and  the  precautions  taken  to  guard 
the  various  premises  from  fire  are  singularly  complete  and 

Upnor  Castle,  which  lies  on  the  opposite  side  of  the 
Medway,  near  Strood,  is  now  used  as  a  powder  magazine- 
Chatham  Races  are  held  in  August,  on  the  heights,  and 
always  attract  a  gay  concourse  of  visitors ;  but  the  reviews, 
of  more  frequent  occurrence,  are  a  never-failing  source  of 
interest  and  admiration  to  the  spectators,  who  muster  in 

120  CHATHAM. 

thousands  upon  these  occasions.  The  lively  music  of  the 
military  bands,  the  bright  gaiety  of  the  accoutrements,  and 
the  wondrous  precision  of  the  evolutions,  form  a  combination 
more  calculated  than  perhaps  any  other  sight  in  England  to 
dazzle.the  eye  and  infect  the  dullest  peasant  with  a  passion 
for  military  "  glory." 



For  oar  next  excursion  the  assistance  of  the  South-Eastem 
Railway  is  desirable.  Procure  a  ticket  for  the  Edenbridge 
Station,  31  miles  from  London,  and  you  ^vill  be  promptly 
deposited  in  one  of  the  prettiest  and  most  picturesque  villages 
in  Kent,  after  a  railway  ride  that  has  always  something  to 
recommend  it  on  the  score  of  scenery.  The  village  is  about  a 
mile  from  the  station,  and  is  chiefly  inhabited  by  the  followers 
of  St.  Crispin,  but  the  charming  pastoral  look  of  the  whole 
district,  traversed  by  the  river  Eden,  almost  justifies  the 
adoption  of  such  an  appellation  for  the  stream.  After  a  glance 
at  the  church,  which  presents  nothing  very  remarkable,  we  turn 
off  by  a  bye-road  to  the  left,  under  the  direction  of  a  finger-post, 
and  passing  through  a  highly  fertile  region,  intersected  by  plea- 
sant footpaths  amid  cornfields  and  hop-gardens,  we  reach,  after 
an  agreeable  two  miles  walk,  the  little  hamlet  of  Hever,  where 
we  may  pause  at  the  humble  hostel  bearing  the  name  of 
"  Henry  VIII.,"  and  recruit  our  strength  with  some  of  mine 
host's  home-brewed,  whilst  we  refiresh  our  memory  with  the 
incidents  that  have  made  the  locality  memorable  in  history. 
In  the  church  is  a  stately  marble  tomb  to  the  memory  of  Sir 
Thomas  Boleyn  (father  of  the  unfortunate  Anne),  with  this 
inscription: — '^ Here  lieth  Sir  Thomas  BuUen,  Knight  of  the 
Order  of  the  Garter,  Erie  of  Wiltshire,  and  Erie  of  Ormond, 

122  HEVEB   CASTT£. 

wiche  deceased  the  12  deiie  of  March  in  the  Tear  of  ortr  Lord 
1538."  Some  memorials  of  the  Cobham  and  Waldo  families 
are  also  in  the  chancel. 

Hever  Castle  is  about  a  quarter  of  a  mile  from  the  church, 
and  looks,  even  at  a  distance,  like  a  building  hallowed  by  the 
associations  of  the  past.  It  was  erected,  in  the  reign  of 
Edward  111^  by  William  De  Hevre,  who  obtained  a  charter 
from  the  king  to  "  embattle  his  house,"  and  have  the  privilege 
of  free- warren.  In  the  reign  of  Henry  the  Sixth  it  was  pur- 
chased by  Sir  GreofFrey  Boleyn,  sometime  Lord  Mayor  of 
London,  and  grand&ther  to  the  luckless  maiden  who  after- 
wards became  Queen  to  Henry  VHI.  At  present  the  Waldo 
family  are  in  possession  of  the  mansion,  which  now  forms  a 
quadrangle  enclosing  an  inner  paved  courtyard.  The  front  of 
the  castle  is  composed  of  a  central  keep,  with  gate  and  port- 
cullis beneath,  and  a  square  tower  on  each  side.  Most  of  the 
defensive  works  are  in  good  preservation,  the  original  doors, 
wickets,  knockers,  and  gratings  being  yet  remaining.  The 
courtyard  is  fancifully  inlaid  with  red  bricks,  and  leads  across 
to  the  house,  built  in  the  very  early  Tudor  style.  The 
apartments,  to  which  a  small  gratuity  will  generally  procure 
a  Cicerone,  are  usually  entered  by  what  is  now  the  kitchen, 
though  it  formerly  served  as  the  great  dining  hall  of  the 
mansion.  This  room  is  very  spacious,  being  90  feet  long  and 
30  wide,  and,  having  some  of  the  old  furniture  remaining,  is 
not  traversed  without  interest.  The  staircase  beyond  com- 
municates with  several  small  ante-rooms,  panelled  with  oak, 
and  a  long  gallery  having  an  ornamented  ceiling  in  stucco. 
One  of  these  is  Anne  Boleyn's  bedroom,  said  to  be  religiously 
preserved  in  its  original  condition,  and  having  such  a  delight- 
fully antique  appearance  that  it  requires  no  unwarrantable 
credulity  to  believe  the  tradition.  The  very  bed  whereon 
Anne  reposed  stands  in  gloomy  grandeur  in  a  dark  comer  of 
the  room,  and,  surrounded  by  its  heavy  hanging  of  yellow 
damask,  looks  just  the  place  to  create  the  most  intensely 
fearful  dreams.    Here,  too,  are  the  very  tables  and  chairs  that 


HEVEB    CASTUE.  123 

foiined  the  furniture  of  her  boudoir,  and  in  one  of  the  sides  of 
the  apartment  is  a  dismal  recess  that  most  probably  ser\'ed  as 
a  strong  cupboard  for  valuables,  though  its  horrors  are 
increased  by  a  legend  that  Anne  was  incarcerated  within, 
and  nearly  starved  to  death,  by  order  of  her  inhuman 
husband.  At  the  upper  end  of  the  gallery  is  a  trap- door, 
which  when  lifted  up  discovers  a  narrow  and  precipitons 
descent,  said  to  lead  as  far  as  the  moat,  and  comprising  a  cell 
very  aptly  named  "  the  dungeon."  Here,  in  the  "  troublous 
times"  of  yore,  the  family  are  presumed  to  have  secreted 
themselves  for  safety,  and  a  very  uncomfortable  mode  of 
seclusion  it  must  have  been.  Passing  from  the  mansion  into 
the  interior  of  the  castle,  to  which  a  winding  stair  in  one  of  the 
towei's  will  conduct  us,  we  enter  the  great  hall,  occupying 
nearly  the  whole  ^vidth  of  the  castle,  and  bearing  on  its  walls 
a  number  of  ancient  family  portraits.  Among  them  is  one, 
pensive  and  placid,  representing  Anne  Boleyn  herself,  in  the 
dress  which  she  wore  on  the  day  of  her  execution.  Her  royal 
honors  were  but  of  short  duration.  On  the  25th  of  January, 
1533,  her  marriage  with  the  many-wived  monarch  took  place; 
on  the  1st  of  June  she  was  cro^vned;  on  the  7  th  of  September 
she  had  a  daughter,  afterwards  Queen  Elizabeth ;  and  in  less 
than  three  years,  on  the  19th  of  May,  1536,  in  the  26th  year  of 
her  age  and  in  the  very  prime  of  womanhood,  she  was 
unjustly  executed.  The  whole  history  of  this  unhappy  union 
is  perhaps  one  of  the  most  romantic  and  tragical  in  our 
English  annals.  The  spot  thus  imperishably  linked  with  the 
name  of  the  ill-fated  Queen  has  been  somewhat  graphically 
described  in  the  following  versification,  which  we  quote  as 
giving  a  poetic  notion  of  the  appearance  now  presented  by 
this  interesting  mansion  and  castle : — 

"  Ado\ni  the  crowded  woods  of  Kent, 
With  embrasure  and  battlement, 
Vhilome  of  many  a  fray  the  scene, 
And  still  denoting  what  hath  been, 
In  silent  grandeur  to  the  skies 
The  old  grey  walls  of  Hever  rise ; 


The  moat,  which  fed  by  Eden's  stream 

Then  laved  its  base,  now  calm  doth  seem, 

As  if  (in  grief  for  those  whose  sway 

Holed  o'er  it  in  a  brigliter  day. 

And  left  a  charm  thereon  imprest). 

Its  tide  had  wept  itself  to  rest : 

The  entrance  flanked  by  towers  which  frown 

In  all  their  Gothic  sternness  down ; 

In  rust  the  teethed  portcullis  hung, 

The  arch  wherefrom  the  drawbridge  swung, 

The  broad  barr'd  windows  round  which  time 

Hath  Ivy- footed  dared  to  climb. 

Are  features  that  e'en  now  declare. 

How  mighty  Hever's  glories  were." 

Leaving  Hever  we  pursue  our  way  towards  Penshurst, 
encountering,  at  two  miles  distance,  the  old  and  most 
romantic  village  of  Chiddingstone,  which  only  wants  a  Chalet 
or  two  and  some  Alpine  heights  beyond  to  make  it  a  per- 
fect resemblance  to  a  Swiss  hamlet.  There  are  here  some 
vestiges  of  the  ancient  Druids,  and  the  church  has  the  credit 
of  possessing  the  finest  tower  in  the  county.  Hardly  a  mile 
and  a  half  further  we  come  to  Penshurst,  full  of  associations 
connected  with  valour  and  poetry.  Here  the  brave  Sir  Philip 
Sidney  resided  and  wrote  his  Arcadia,  and  here  Ben  Jonson, 
Waller,  Shelley,  and  others  have  immortalized  in  verse  its 
sylvan  glories,  Penshurst  Castle  is  now  the  seat  of  Lord  De 
Lisle  and  Dudley,  who  has  contributed  some  valuable  paint- 
ings to  the  picture  gallery,  previously  rich  in  the  works  of  the 
dd  masters.  It  is  of  a  quadrangular  form,  including  a 
spacious  court,  chapel,  and  hall,  and  by  the  courtesy  of  the 
present  proprietor  the  public  are  admitted  to  view  the  interior, 
under  certain  necessary  restrictions.  The  Sidney  family  have 
held  it  in  possession  since  the  reign  of  Edward  VL  Nothing 
can  be  finer  than  the  spacious  Park,  which  was  once  acknow- 
ledged to  be  the  most  beautiful  in  the  kingdom,  and  there  is  a 
famous  oak  yet  standing,  which  tradition  identifies  as  the  one 
planted  at  the  birth  of  Sir  Philip  Sidney.  We  can  return  by  rail- 
way hence  either  from  the  station  near  the  village  or  go  on  to 


8EVEN0AK.S.  125 

Tunbridge  Wells,  about  six  miles  distant.  The  Tunbridge 
station  on  the  South-Eastern  Eailway  is  also  within  an  hour's 

By  way  of  varying  the  route  home  we  would  suggest 
taking  the  coach  road  back  through  Sevenoaks,  situated  on 
the  ridge  of  that  great  chain  of  sand  hills  which  runs  across 
the  county,  and  divides  the  upland  from  the  weald,  and  in  the 
midst  of  a  richly  diversified  country.  Near  the  town  is  Knole 
House  and  Park,  the  seat  of  the  late  Dukes  of  Dorset,  and 
now  in  the  occupation  of  Earl  Amherst.  The  park  consists 
of  nearly  1,000  acres,  and  the  mansion  is  reputed  the  most 
magnificent  seat  in  the  south  of  England.  The  public  enjoy 
the  privilege  of  admission  both  to  the  house  and  grounds,  and 
the  picture  gallery  in  the  former  is  of  unrivalled  value,  com- 
prising the  best  specimens  of  the  works  of  Holbein,  Titian 
Correggio,  Vandyke,  Lely,  Poussin,  Teniers,  Rembrandt, 
Salvator  Eosa,  and  Sir  Joshua  Reynolds.  At  Biver  Head,  a 
little  village  a  mile  and  a  half  distant,  is  Montreal,  the  seat  of 
Lord  Holmesdale,  and  at  Chevening,  four  miles  from  Sevenoaks, 
is  the  seat  of  Earl  Stanhope,  whose  noble  mansion  and  park 
are  at  all  times  open  to  the  public.  The  maze  formed  in  the 
grounds  here  is  even  larger  than  that  at  Hampton  Court.  We 
next  pass  by  Knockholt  and  its  high  hill,  whereupon  some  old 
trees,  called  "  Knockholt  beeches,"  have  such  a  lofty  station 
that  they  can  be  seen  from  nearly  every  direction  for  forty 
miles  round,  and  are  equally  discernible  from  Leith  Hill, 
Harrow,  and  Gravesend.  Through  Halstead,  Farnborough, 
and  Keston,  we  come  to  Bromley,  the  whole  distance  exhibit- 
ing a  continued  succession  of  landscapes,  and  having  traces  of 
old  Roman  encampments  in  the  districts  surrounding.  Brom- 
ley is  fourteen  miles  from  Sevenoaks  and  ten  from  London. 
A  plain  brick  building,  rebuilt  in  1777,  on  a  hill  towards 
Beckenham,  is  still  a  palace  of  the  Bishops  of  Rochester. 
There  is  a  chalybeate  spring  in  the  garden,  known  as  the 
"  well  of  St.  Blaize."  Two  miles  from  Bromley  is  Beckenham, 
a  little  village  where  there  is  a  specimen  of  the  "  Lich  Gate," 


on  which  faneral  processions  were  wont  to  deposit  their 
burden  and  rest  on  their  way  to  interment  In  the  parish 
church  of  Beckenham  was  buried  (October  24th,  1740)  Mar- 
garet Finch,  the  "  Queen  of  the  Gipsies,"  who  attained  the 
great  age  of  109  years.  After  travelling  for  a  century  over 
various  parts  of  the  country  she  eventually  settled  at  Nor- 
wood, where  her  age  and  the  fame  of  her  fortune-telling 
attracted  numerous  visitors,  and  not  a  few  of  rank  and  title. 
From  a  habit  of  sitting  on  the  ground,  with  her  chin  resting 
on  her  knees,  she  became  so  contracted  that  the  posture 
became  permanent,  and  when  she  died  they  enclosed  her  body 
in  a  deep  square  box.  Her  portrait  formerly  adorned  a  house 
of  entertainment  at  Nonvood  called  "  The  Gipsy  House." 

We  can  hence  cross  over  to  Sydenham  and  take  the  Croy- 
don Eailway,  or  return  by  road,  through  Lewisham  and 
Camberwell,  back  to  the  metropolis. 

PAKT    IV. 



The  "  Eastern  Counties  Kailway"  famishes  a  speedy  mode  of 
cultivating  acquaintance  with  Epping  Forest  and  the  fertile 
fishing  district  of  the  Lea,  and  Ponder 's  End,  Waltham,  and 
Broxbourne  are  especially  good  points  for  starting  on  a 
pleasure  trip  from  the  station.  We  shall  for  the  first  excursion 
take  the  Cambridge  Branch,  and  give  the  visitor  an  opportunity 
of  taking  his  ticket  for  either  of  the  places  we  have  indicated 

Leaving  the  commodious  station  at  Shoreditch  and  crossing 
on  a  long  viaduct  the  miserable  region  tenanted  by  the 
Spitalfield  weavers,  we  have  on  our  left  Bethnal  Green  and 
Bonner's  Fields,  the  scene  of  the  late  Chartist  disturbances.  A 
fine  open  space  has  been  cleared  away  here  within  the  last 
few  years  for  the  establislmient  of  the  new  **  Victoria  Park," 
where  the  hard-working  artisans  of  the  eastern  suburbs  may 
escape  from  the  moil  and  turmoil  of  the  human  hive  to  the 
pleasanter  pathways  amid  trees  and  flowers.  Passing  Bow 
Church  and  the  Tower  Hamlets  Cemetery  on  the  right,  and 


the  Reservoir  of  the  East  London  Waterworks  on  the  left,  we 
reach  Stratford,  a  busy  station  on  the  line,  wheqce  branches 
diverge  to  Ipswich  on  the  north,  and  the  Thames  Terminus 
opposite  Woolwich,  on  the  east.  Being  the  principal  depot  for 
the  locomotive  and  carriage  department,  many  of  the  artificers 
employed  about  the  railway  reside  here,  and  a  number  of 
houses,  distinguished  collectively  as  "  Hudson  New  Town," 
has  been  erected  for  their  accommodation.    The  mention 
made  by  Chaucer  of  the  manner  in  which  one  of  his  heroines 
spoke  French  "  after  the  scole  of  Stratford-atte-Bowe,"  not 
only  marks  its  antiquity,  but  shows  its  early  reputation  as  a 
place  for  seminaries.    The  bridge  over  the  Lea  at  Bow  was 
built  by  Matilda,  Queen  of  Henry  I.,  and  was  the  oldest  stone 
bridge  in  England.    It  was  pulled  down  in  1 830,  and  a  new 
stone  bridge  of  substantial  appearance    substituted.     This 
bridge  unites  Middlesex  and  Essex.    Bow  Church,  with  its 
ivy  covering,  is  as  old  as  the  reign  of  Henry  H.,  and  exhibits 
some  portions  of  Norman  architecture,  well  displayed  by  its 
position  in  the  middle  of  the  road.    The  new  church  of  St. 
John,  at  Stratford,  is  an  elegant  structure,  built  in  1836,  and 
is  situated  at  the  junction  of  the  Newmarket  and  Colchester 
roads.    Some  remains  of  an  abbey,  founded  for  Cistercian 
monks  in  1135,  were  lately  existing  here.     The  line  now 
crosses  some  extensive  marshes  watered  by  the  Lea,  from 
which  river  Low  Layton  and  Laytonstone  derive  their  appella- 
tion.   In  the  last  century   some   valuable  Eoman  remains 
were  here  found,  during  an  excavation,  and  a  curious  subter- 
ranean arched  gateway  discovered.    The  church  contains  a 
tomb  to  the  memory  of  John  Strype,  the  antiquary,  who  was 
buried  here  at  the  ripe  old  age  of  94,  in  1737,  after  having 
been  the  vicar  here  for  nearly  70  years.    Monuments  are  also 
seen  to  the  Earl  of  Norwich,  William  Bowyer,  an  eminent 
printer,  and  others  of  some  note.  At  Riwkliolts  are  tlie  vestiges 
of  some  ancient  entrenchments,  and  the  Temple  Mills,  now 
used  as  Lead  Works,  were  formerly  in  possession  of  the 
Knights  Templars.    In  the  ancient  church  of  East  Ham  is 


buried  another  renowned  antiquary,  Dr.  Stukely,  without  any 
inscription,  according  to  his  request ;  there  is  only  the  date  of 
his  death  (1765).  The  parish  extends  from  Wanstead  flats  to 
the  Thames. 

Wahhamstow  is  a  mile  west  of  the  Tottenham  Station,  and 
dates  back  to  the  time  of  Edward  the  Confessor.  The  church 
has  a  fine  square  tower,  built  in  1535,  and  contains  some 
good  monuments.  Here  was  bom  George  Gascoigne,  one  of 
our  earliest  poets.  From  Pander's  End  we  would  suggest  a 
stroll  on  to  Chingford,  two  miles  from  the  station,  and  thence 
explore  onward  to  the  west.  Chingford  Church,  a  small 
antique  building  nearly  covered  with  ivy,  has  a  delightful 
situation  on  a  gentle  grassy  eminence  overlooking  the  Lea  on 
one  side,  and  the  wooded  undulations  of  Epping  Forest  on 
the  other.  We  would  especially  recommend  in  fine  weather 
a  walk  leading  on  to  Chigwell  and  Chigwell  Row,  where  the 
famous  hostel  of  the  "  Maypole,"  mentioned  in  "  Bamaby 
Rudge,"  is  yet  standing,  though  much  altered  of  late.  The 
glades  and  sylvan  avenues  around  Highbeach,  Sewardstone, 
and  Upshire,  are  very  beautiful,  and  capital  places  for  a  pic- 
nic. We  can  then,  to  rejoin  the  railway,  go  round  by 
Waltham  Abbey,  Canute's  favorite  hunting  station,  and  which, 
though  now  a  small  town,  formerly  was  honored  with  the 
residence  of  Henry  HL  Here  are  some  Government  Powder 
Mills  on  a  large  scale,  and  near  the  Abbey  Mills,  on  a  wide 
space  of  ground  called  the  "  Bramblings,"  Henry  VIH.  had  a 
small  pleasure-house  that  he  used  as  an  occasional  residence, 
and  here  he  first  met  Cranmer,  a  meeting  that  afterwards  led 
to  such  important  results.  The  branches  of  the  Lea  about 
Waltham  are  said  to  flow  in  the  channels  originally  made  by 
Alfred  the  Great,  when  he  left  the  Danish  fleet  dry  on  the 
shore  by  altering  the  course  of  the  river.  The  remains  of  the 
once  famous  monastery,  from  which  the  town  takes  its  name, 
are  at  the  back  of  the  parish  church,  a  portion  of  which  was 
the  old  conventual  chapel.  They  consist  of  an  entrance  gate- 
way and  bridge  across  an  arm  of  the  Lea,  some  vaulted 



arches,  and  a  few  broken  walls.  Judging  from  its  size,  the 
church  must  have  been  a  magnificent  specimen  of  Saxon 
architecture.  Previous  to  the  battle  of  Hastings,  Harold  here 
offered  up  his  vows,  and,  after  the  fatal  termination  of  the 
conflict,  it  was  here  that  he  was  brought  for  interment  with 
his  two  brothers,  Garth  and  Leofwin,  by  their  unhappy 
mother  Githa,  who  with  difficulty  obtained  even  the  dead 
bodies  of  her  sons  from  the  hands  of  the  conquering  Norman. 
The  site  of  Harold's  tomb,  which  stood  in  a  chapel  beyond  the 
east  end  of  the  choir,  is  no  less  than  120  feet  distant  from  the 
termination  of  the  present  edifice.  The  nave,  with  its  side 
aisles,  forms  the  body  of  the  parish  church,  and  is  in  the 
Norman  style,  with  round  massive  piers,  decorated  formerly 
with  costly  brass  embellishments.  It  is  about  90  feet  in  length, 
and  48  in  breadth.  A  lofty  square  embattled  tower,  86  feet 
high,  was  erected  at  the  west  end  of  the  church  in  1558.  The 
"  Chapel  of  our  Ladye,"  now  used  as  a  vestry  and  school- room, 
projects  from  the  southern  side  of  the  church,  and  has  beneath 
it  a  fine  arched  crypt,  which,  says  Fuller,  who  was  the 
incumbent  here  from  1648  to  1658,  is  "  the  fairest  I  ever  saw." 
At  the  south  east  end  is  another  chapel,  now  a  mere  receptacle 
for  rubbish.  A  wooden  screen  bearing  the  arms  of  Philip  and 
Mary  is  worthy  notice,  as  well  as  a  font  of  great  antiquity. 
The  glass  painting  of  Harold,  which  was  formerly  near  the 
screen,  was  destroyed  wantonly  by  the  Puritans  in  their 
display  of  animosity  to  all  that  savoured  of  kingly  power. 
Eastward  of  the  church  stood  the  Refectory,  and  the  Abbey 
Farm  occupies  the  site  of  the  ancient  stables.  Farmer  quaintly 
remarks  that  the  church  "  is  observed  by  all  artists,  and  the 
most  carious,  to  stand  the  exactest  east  and  west  of  any  other 
in  Great  Britain."  No  slight  praise  for  an  architect  who 
worked  before  the  time  of  the  "  Mariner's  Compass."  In  the 
Abbey  gardens  is  a  tulip  tree,  esteemed  the  largest  in  England, 
and  said  to  measure  nine  feet  six  inches  in  circumference. 

Broxboume,  to  which  allusion  has  been  made  in  our  fourth 
Middlesex  Excursion,  is  the  next  station  of  importance,  and 

ETB   HOUSE.  131 

the  silvery  track  of  the  Lea  may  hence  be  pleasantly  followed 
with  rod  and  line  for  miles.  The  whole  of  this  region  is 
thoroughly  identified  with  Izaak  Walton  and  the  "  Complete 
Angler."  Modern  Piscators,  too,  are  constantly  seen  plying 
their  gentle  vocation  on  the  borders  of  the  Lea  and  Stort, 


"— —  plenteous  streams  a  various  race  supply ; 
The  bright-ey'd  perch  with  fins  of  Tyrian  dye  ; 
Tlie  silver  eel  in  shining  volumes  roU'd  ; 
The  yellow  carp,  in  scales  bedropped  with  gold  ; 
Sirift  trouts,  diversified  with  crimson  stains, 
And  pikes  the  tyrants  of  the  watery  plains." 

There  are  several  pretty  wayside  hostels,  too,  about  the  banks, 
that  provide  good  accommodation  for  fishing  parties,  and  at 
these  perchance  a  satisfactory  modern  substitute  may  be 
found  for  that  delectable  potation  spoken  of  by  the  epicurean 
Izaak,  and  which  he  describes  as  composed  of  "  sack,  milk, 
oranges,  and  sugar,  which  all  put  together  made  a  drink  like 
nectar;  indeed,  too  good  for  any  but  us  anglers." 

About  a  mile  and  a  half  from  Broxbourne,  and  21  miles 
from  London,  is  the  Rye  House,  situated  on  the  Lea,  near 
where  it  joins  the  Stort,  and  close  to  the  old  market  town  of 
Hoddesdon,  previously  described.  A  well-appointed  tavern, 
that  has  borrowed  its  name  from  the  mansion,  lies  on  the  side 
of  the  road  to  Stanstead  Abbots  and  Harlow.  The  old  mansioil 
itself  lies  to  the  north  of  the  tavern,  at  a  short  distance  from 
the  east  bank  of  the  river.  Few  need  be  reminded  that  here 
assembled  the  conspirators  who  intended,  it  is  said,  to  have 
murdered  Charles  IL  and  his  brother  James,  Duke  of  York 
(afterwards  James  II.),  on  their  road  home  from  Newmarket. 
The  house,  which  formerly  occupied  considerable  space,  was 
built  by  one  Andrew  Ogard,  in  the  reign  of  Henry  VI.,  and 
being  surrounded  by  a  moat,  was,  from  its  insular  position, 
called  "  the  Isle  of  Rye."  At  the  period  (1683)  when  this 
"  meal-tub  plot "  was  alleged  to  be  in  process  of  concoction, 
the  house  was  tenanted  by  a  maltster  named  Rumbald.  The 
return  of  the  monarch  being  at  a  much  earlier  period  than 


was  expected,  is  said  to  have  frustrated  the  conspirators,  but 
there  is  every  reason  to  believe  that  the  whole  affair  existed 
only  in  the  heated  imagination  of  the  witnesses.  So  implicitly, 
however,  was  it  believed  at  the  time,  that  those  noble-minded 
patriots  Russell  and  Sydney  were  tried  and  executed,  on 
account  of  their  supposed  connection  with  an  absurd  plot 
which  the  whole  evidence  brought  forward  tended  to  disprove. 
The  maltster,  Kumbald,  escaped  at  the  time,  but  when,  some 
years  after,  he  was  attending  the  Duke  of  Argyle,  on  his 
landing  in  Scotland,  he  was  taken  captive,  and  suffered  the 
most  horrible  death  that  can  be  conceived.  Although  much 
wounded  at  the  time  when  he  was  captured,  a  contemporary 
writer  says,  that  "  he  was  hoisted  up  by  a  pulley  and  hanged 
awhile;  he  was  then  let  down,  scarce  fully  dead,  his  heart 
plucked  out  and  carried  on  the  point  of  a  bayonet  by  the 
hangman."  He  died,  however,  resolutely  denj-iug  the  truth  of 
the  "  Rye  House  "  plot.  The  only  part  of  the  mansion  which 
now  remains  is  an  embattled  gate  house,  built  of  brick  and 
ornamented  with  a  handsome  stone  Gothic  doorway.  The 
moat  is  quite  filled  up.  The  few  chimneys  left  standing  are 
very  curiously  constructed,  and  at  one  of  the  angles  is  a 
turret,  to  which  an  ancient  winding  staircase  leads  up  from 
the  interior.  Until  lately  it  was  a  workhouse  for  the  poor  of 
Stanstead  Abbots,  in  which  parish  it  is  situated. 

Burnt  Mill,  Harlow,  and  Sawbridgeworth  furnish  agreeable 
pastoral  scenery  to  the  pedestrian,  but  the  country  round  is  of 
too  flat  and  level  a  character  to  exhibit  such  prospects  as  we 
are  continually  encountering  on  the  roads  through  Surrey 
and  Kent.  The  railway  passenger  who  can  proceed  onward 
to  Cambridge  and  see  the  Colleges  will  not,  however,  regret 
his  prolongation  of  the  tour,  though  a  description  of  this 
famous  university  town,  so  charmingly  situated  on  the  banks 
of  the  "classic  Cam,"  is  manifestly  beyond  our  restricted 





A  railway  excursion  to  Chelmsford  is  hardly  so  prolific  in 
interesting  localities  as  some  we  have  described,  but  as  many 
who  have  exhausted  other  routes  may  like  to  try  the  "  fresh 
fields  and  pastures  new"  presented  by  this,  we  shall  briefiy 
glance  at  the  notabilities  that  lie  within  the  compass  of  the 
line.  The  Colchester  and  Ipswich  branch  of  the  "  Eastern 
Counties  "  diverges  to  the  north-east  just  below  Stratford,  and 
the  first  place  to  which  the  attention  of  the  passenger  may  be 
called  is  West  Ham,  where  a  brick  gateway  and  a  small  arch 
form  the  remains  of  the  ancient  abbey  that  once  stood  within 
the  parish.  The  church  is  large  but  destitute  of  architectural 
beauty.  Nearly  two  mUes  from  the  Ilford  station  is  Wanstead, 
where  once  stood  the  magnificent  mansion  of  Wanstead 
House,  demolished  in  a  most  thoughtless  and  barbarous 
manner  by  Viscount  Wellesley,  who  married  the  wealthy 
heiress  of  the  Longs'  and  Tilneys'.  The  mansion  was  built, 
in  1715,  by  Sir  Richard  Child,  and  the  park  was  honored  at 
various  times  by  festivities  in  celebration  of  the  visits  of  Queen 
Elizabeth  and  James  I,  Here  also  resided  the  Bourbon 
Princes  in  their  exile.  The  "  Infant  Orphan  Asylum,"  at 
Snaresbrook,  was  opened  in  June,  1843,  for  500  orphans,  and 
is  a  handsome  structure,  well  adapted  for  the  benevolent 


object  to  which  it  is  devoted.  The  old  town  of  Barkinglies  to  the 
south  of  the  station  about  the  same  distance,  and  occupies  an 
advantageous  position  on  the  east  side  of  the  river  Eoding. 
Numerous  fishing  vessels  for  the  supply  of  Billingsgate  keep 
up  a  lively  traffic  in  the  place.  At  Chadwell  Street  Ward, 
intersected  by  the  line,  there  was,  in  1659,  an  odd  memorial 
erected  to  the  late  Protector,  Oliver  Cromwell,  in  the  form  of 
a  whalebone  arch,  taken  from  a  whale  caught  in  Barking 
Reach.  Eastbury  House,  one  mile  from  Barking,  is  an  ancient 
mansion,  reported  to  have  been  a  meeting-house  for  the 
conspirators  whilst  engaged  in  arranging  the  details  of  the 
Gunpowder  Plot 

Rmnford,  six  miles  from  Hford,  is  an  important  and  some- 
what venerable  town,  having  a  famous  com  and  cattle  market, 
held  every  "Wednesday,  according  to  a  charter  granted  in 
1247.  There  are  several  elegant  seats  in  the  neighbourhood, 
bat  no  public  buildings  requiring  mention.  A  stroll  of  three 
miles  north  of  the  station  to  Havering-atte-Bower—  the  very 
name  of  which  carries  a  pleasant  intimation  of  its  Saxon 
origin  and  woody  environs — will  be  found  worthy  the  pains 
of  the  pedestrian.  One  of  our  old  monarchs,  Edward  the 
Confessor,  had  a  palace  here,  and  an  old  legend,  in  attributing 
to  him  the  present  appellation  of  the  parish,  gives  the  follow- 
ing explanation  of  an  inscription  recorded  on  his  shrine  in 
Westminster  Abbey.  From  this  it  would  seem  that  in  that 
vague  and  uncertain  period  known  to  chroniclers  of  fairy 
tales  as  "  once-upon-a-time,"  an  aged  pilgrim  met  the 
monarch,  as  he  was  leaving  his  palace,  and  solicited  alms. 
The  king,  having  no  money  about  liim,  promised  to  remember 
him  next  time,  but  the  pilgrim  would  not  be  refused,  arid, 
after  some  further  importunities,  he  presented  the  mendicant 
with  a  ring,  in  default  of  the  more  convertible  coin  he  had 
been  requested  to  bestow.  Some  years  after  this  same  pilgrim 
was  met  in  Judea  by  a  party  of  English  palmers  traversing 
the  same  land,  in  the  hope  of  thereby  winning  a  pardon  for 
some   offences  committed  in  their  native  cotmtry.     They 


recognised  the  pilgi-im,  as  Ophelia  would  have  done,  "by  bis 
cockle  hat  and  staff,  and  by  his  sandal  shoon,"  and  he  gave 
unto  them  a  ring,  with  instructions  to  bear  it  unto  Edward  the 
Confessor,  and  announce  to  him  that  six  months  after  he 
should  die.  The  prediction  was,  of  course,  verified,  and  firom 
that  time  the  village  of  Clavering  became  by  a  punning  verbal 
transition  "  Have-a-ring."  Being  what  is  called  "  a  liberty," 
confirmed  by  Edward  I.  and  other  monarchs,  the  county 
magistrates  have  no  jurisdiction  within  its  limits,  and  the 
tenants  claim  exemption  from  toll  throughout  the  kingdom. 
It  is  a  pleasant  village  on  the  borders  of  Hainault  Forest, 
which,  with  Epping  Forest,  is  reputed  to  comprise  upwards  of 
80,000  acres,  many  of  which  have  latterly  been  placed  under 

Brentwood,  a  corruption  of  Burnt  "Wood,  the  forest  in  which 
it  stood  being  consumed  centuries  ago  by  fire,  is  a  thriving 
town,  much  increased  in  importance  since  it  has  been  a  rail- 
way station.  The  surrounding  country  assumes  a  more  undu- 
lating character,  and  the  neighbourhood,  especially  towards 
Billericay,  becomes  even  picturesque.  In  the  High  Street  will 
be  seen  the  old  prison  and  Assize  Hall,  ^vhich  has  recently 
undergone  extensive  repairs.  The  ancient  chapel  was  dedi- 
cated to  Saint  Thomas  a  Becket,  in  1227.  Notwithstanding 
modern  innovations,  several  buildings  still  remaining  have  an 
antiquity  of  four  centuries.  Lord  Petre,  who  resides  at 
Thomdon  Hall,  close  by,  has  erected  here  a  new  Eoman 
Catholic  Chapel,  which  is,  unquestionably,  a  fine  ornament  to 
the  place.  This  nobleman's  seat  is  at  Ingrave,  about  two  miles 
to  the  south,  and  has  around  it  a  fine  park,  with  a  noble 
avenue  of  trees  leading  to  the  principal  entrance.  In  the  time 
of  Henry  VII.  it  belonged  to  the  Fitz-Lewis  family,  the  last 
representative  of  which  was  here  burned  to  death,  with  his 
bride,  on  their  wedding  night. 

Ingatestone,  five  miles  further,  has  no  feature  except  the  old 
Hall,  and  its  fishponds,  to  distinguish  it  from  an  ordinary 
market  town.    This  mansion,  which  is  irregularly  built,  was 


formerly  the  seat  of  the  Petres,  to  whom  are  some  interesting 
monuments  in  the  old  church.  About  three  miles  to  the  south 
are  two  little  parishes  called  Buttsbury  and  Stock,  fonning 
one  village  between  them.  Buttsbury  Church  is  quite  a 
curiosity  in  its  way,  measuring  only  three  feet  by  twenty,  and 
having  a  square  tower  of  flint  and  stone,  that  makes  the 
whole  edifice  look  in  the  distance  like  a  Lowther  Arcade  toy. 
The  bricks  made  about  here,  called  "  Stock  bricks,"  are 
famous  all  through  the  country. 

Chelmsford,  29  miles  from  London,  was  an  old  Roman 
station  on  the  river  Chelmer,  to  which  it  owes  its  name,  and 
has  a  neat  and  bustling  appearance,  as  the  capital  of  the 
county.  The  County  Hall,  built  of  Portland  stone,  with  four 
handsome  Ionic  columns,  has  a  majestic  aspect  from  the 
High  Street,  and  here  the  sessions  and  assizes  are  held.  A 
Museum,  Mechanics'  Institution,  Assembly  Rooms,  and  a 
handsome  church,  are  all  ornaments  to  the  town. 

An  agreeable  circuit  can  be  made  from  Chelmsford  through 
Great  Waltham  to  Dunmow,  a  distance  of  about  six  miles. 
Great  Dunmow  is  just  the  quiet  old-fashioned  town  that  a 
recollection  of  the  ancient  custom  held  within  its  limits  would 
prepare  us  to  expect.  The  hill  on  which  it  stands  overlooks 
the  river  Chelmer  and  the  finest  tract  of  meadow  land  in  the 
county.  The  celebrated  Flitch  of  Bacon  was  a  custom  which 
originated  in  the  reign  of  Henry  ILL  with  Robert  Fitzwalter, 
who,  with  the  monks  of  Dunmow  Priory,  made  a  grant  that 
"  he  who  repenteth  not  of  his  marriage,  sleeping  or  waking, 
might  lawfully  fetch  a  flitch  of  bacon."  The  last  application 
for  the  flitch  was  made  in  1751,  since  which  time  the  Caudle 
Lectures  have  probably  interfered  with  a  repetition  of  the 
claim.  In  1837  it  was  revived,  with  some  variation  of  the 
original  tenure,  and  now  the  bacon  is  annually  presented  "  to 
the  married  couple — labourer  in  husbandry  and  his  wife — 
who  shall  have  brought  up  the  greatest  part  of  their  children, 
and  placed  them  in  respectable  service,  without  any  or  the 
least  parochial  relief." 

bishop's  stoetfoed.  137 

It  is  eight  miles  from  Dumnow  to  the  Bishop's  Stortford 
Station,  on  the  Cambridge  line,  and  thus  the  excursionist  can 
pleasantly  vary  his  return  route  to  town. 

Before  parting  company  with  the  reader,  we  would  fain 
once  more  impress  upon  him  the  advantages  of  reducing  the 
hints  for  excursions  given  in  the  foregoing  pages  to  the 
pleasant  proofs  of  practical  experience.  We  firmly  believe 
that  nothing  can  give  a  more  vigorous  spur  to  the  flagged 
and  jaded  intellect — nothing  can  administer  a  more  genuine 
and  invigorative  impulse  to  our  thoughts  and  fancies,  than 
the  occasional  flight  from  the  busy  scenes  of  commerce  to  the 
green  recesses  of  our  surrounding  woodlands,  where  we  may 
exchange  the  dizzy  hum  of  traflic  for  peaceful  meditation  in 
those  sylvan  sohtudes  that  are  to  be  found  amid  the  haunts  of 
nature.  Quick  trains  and  cheap  fares  have  done  wonders  in 
bringing  the  hearts  of  luckless  Londoners  into  communion 
with  the  charms  of  the  country,  and  what  we  have  endeavoured 
to  show  is,  that  if  the  long  purses  and  long  jotirneys  commen- 
surate therewith  are  not  ANathin  the  power  of  the  milUon  to 
attain,  we  have  yet  a  hundred  delightftd  resorts  within  the 
compass  of  a  few  shillings  and  a  few  hours.  If  we  cannot 
accomplish  a  trip  to  the  Continent,  we  can  manage  a  jaunt  to 
Leith  Hill;  if  we  fail  to  reach  the  lakes,  or  find  the  Highlands 
beyond  our  reach,  we  can  yet  agreeably  content  ourselves 
with  an  afternoon  in  Richmond  Park  or  a  day  in  Windsor 





















Names  of  Places. 

Abbot's  Langley,  HerU  . . 

Acton,  MidSesex 

Addington,  Surrey  , 

Am  well,  Herts 

Banstead,  Surrey 

Barking,  Essex 

Barnes,  Surrey 

Battersea,  Surrey    

Beckenham,  Kent    

Beddington,  Surrey 

Berkhampstead,  Herts   . . 

Billericay,  Essex 

Bishop's  Stortford,  Herts 

Blacklieath,  Kent 

Ho-^,  Middlesex    

Brentford,  ifidcCetex 

Brentwood,  £M&r    

Brixton,  Surrey    

Brompton,  Kent   

Brook  Green,  Middlesex. . 

Broxbonme,  Herts 

Buttsbury,  Essex 

By&eet,  Surrey 

Carshalton,  Surrey 

Chalk,  Kent 

Charlton,  Kent 

Chatham,  Kent 

Cheam,  Surrey 

Chelmsford,  Essex  

Chertsey,  Surrey 

Chevening,  Kent 

Cheshunt,  Herts  

Chiddingstone,  Kent   .... 

Chigwell,  Essex    

Chingford,  Essex 

Chislehnrst.  Kent 

Chismck,  Middlesex    .... 

Cobham,  Surrey 

Clapham,  Surrey 

Clapton,  Middlesex 

Nearest  Railway  Station,  & 
distance  therefrom. 


Watfbrd 5 

Ealing    1 

Croydon 3| 

Hertford    3  1 

Epsom    3  i 

Ilford 2 

Barnes    | 

Clapham  Common  ..     H 

Sydenham 2  | 

Carshalton 1  j 

Berkliampstead    ....        [ 

Brentwood 5i 

Bishop's  Stortford    . .        j 

Greenwich l*, 

Stratford    | 

Ealing 24 


Omnibus  Route    .... 

See  Chatham 

Omnibus  Route     .... 

Broxbonme  ' 

Ingatestone   3 

Weybridge 2 


Gravesend 2i 

Greenwich It 

Rochester 1 




Tonbridge 10 


Edenbridge    4 

Ponder's  End    4 

Ponder'sEnd    2 

Sydenham 7 

Omnibus  or  Steamboat 

Woking 21 

Clapham  Common  . .     2 
Omnibus  Route    ' 


Names  of  Places. 

Nearest  Railway  Station,  & 
distance  therefrom. 


Gravesend 5 


Romford 3 

Greenwich 9 


Reigate  7i 

Forest  HUl 2 

Bishop's  Stortford    . .     8 

Ealing     1 

Mortlake    1 

Romford    13 

Edenbridge   1 

Edmonton 1 

Chertsey    4 

Greenwich 3 

Ponder's  End    2 

Broxbourne  7 


Route  by  Steamboat 
Claremont  and  Esher     1 


Sydenham 8 

Famborough 6 

Coach  Route 

Mile  End    

Omnibus  Route    .... 

Guildford   4 

Steamboat  Route   . . . 

Hanwell 2 

Steamboat  Route .... 



Lea  Bridge    1 

Omnibus  Route    .... 
Omnibus  Route   .... 




Hertford 7 

Romford 3 

Hemel  Hempstead  . .     2 


Edenbridge    2 

Waltham  Abbey  ... 
Omnibus  Route    •  .. 

Broxbourne    2i 

Omnibus  Route 

Southall 3 


Ingrave,  Essex Brentwood 2i 

Isleworth,  Middlesex  IKichmond 2 

Islington,  MidUlesej;    I  Omnibus  Route    

26   Cobham,  Kent 

10    Croydon,  Surrey 

15    Dagenham,  ^Asar    

15    Daitford,  iien* 

4    Deptford,  A'en* 

24    Dorking,  Surrey 

4    Dulwich,  Surrey 

35    Dunmow,  Essex   

7    Ealing,  Middlesex 

6i  East  Sheen,  Surrey 

26    East  Tilburj',  Essex 

32  Edenbridge,  Kent 

7  Edmonton,  Middlesex 

18  Eghaxa,  Surrey    

8  Eltham,  ^«/i<    

9  Enfield,  Middlesex  

17    Epping,  Essex  

15    Epsom,  Surrey 

14  Evith,  Kent    

15  Esher,  Surrey  

14  Ewell,  Surrey   

15  Famborough,  Kent 

39    Famham,  Surrey , 

6    Finchley,  Middlesex , 

3  Ford  (Old)  Middlesex 

4  Fulham,  Middlesex , 

33  Godalming,  Surrey 

22  Gravesend,  Kent  

8    Greenford,  MidiUesex , 

19  Greenhithe,  Kent   

5  Greenwich,  Kent 

30    Guildford,  Surrey    

6  Ham,  Essex   

3i  Hammersmith,  Middlesex  . 

4  Hampstead,  Middlesex    . . . 

12  Hampton  Court,  Middlesex 

7i  Hanwell,  Middlesex 

9i  Harrow,  Middlesex 

20  llntaeld,  Berts 

15    Havering,  Kssex  

23i  Hemel  Hempstead,  Herts  . 

81    Hertford,  Berts    

84    Hever,  Kent 

12    High  Beach,  Essex 

S|  Highgate,  Middlesex    

n    Hoddesdon,  Berts 

2    HoUoway,  Middlesex   

10  Hounslow,  Middlesex 

23  Ingatestone,  Essex       




Names  of  Places. 

Nearest  Railway  Station,  & 
distance  therefrom. 

12    Kingston,  Surrey 
25    Knoclihoit,  Kent 
5i  Laytonstone,  Essex 
19   Leatherhead,  Surrey 

6  Lee,  Kent 
29    Leitli  HUl,  Surrey 

64  Lewisham,  Kent 

14  Long  Ditton,  Surrey 

19  Merstham,  Surrey   ....... 

7  Merton,  Carrey 

23  Jimton,  Kent 

24  Minis,  Herts 

6i  Mortlake,  Surrey 

20  Nortlifleet,  A'e«<   

6  Norwood  Surrey 

3    Nunhead,  Surrey 

21  Ongax,  Essex 

3   Peckliam,  Surrey 

37    Penaliurst,  Kent  

10    Petersham,  Surrey 

1 2 J  Pinner,  Middlesex    

16  Pm-fleet,  Essex 

44  Putney,  Surrey 

21    Reigate,  Surrey   

10    Richmond,  Surrey  

18  Rickmansworth,  ^erts    ... 

23    Rivevhead,  Kent  

29    Rochester,  A>n<    

12    Romford,  ii.sftr    

21  Saint  Alban's, //ert«    

23   Seven  Oaks,  Kent 

8  Shooter's  Hill,  Kent 

17  Staines,  J/i<Mfesea;   

22  Stock,  Essex 

3  Stock  well,  Surrey    

4  Stratford,  Essex    

7  Streatliam,  Surrey  

7    Sydenham,  Kent 

7  Tooting,  Surrey   , 

71  Tottenham,  Middlesex 

1 0   Twickenham,  Middlesex — 

15  Uxbridge,  Middlesex    

12   Waltliam  Abbey,  Essex  .... 
12    Waltham  Cross,  Herts  .  — 

6    Wandsworth, -Surr€y , 

19  Weybridge,  Surrey 

224  Windsor,  Berks 

6   Wim Weduu,  Surrey 

a4    Woking,  Surrey  

8  Woodford,  Essex 

16  Woodmansteme,  Surrey    . . 

9  Woolwicli«  A'ent 



Coach  Route 

Lea  Bridge    1 

Epsom    4 

Greenwich 2 

Reigate  10 

Greenwich 1 

Esher 1 


Wimbledon    1 

Gravesend 1 

Hertford 7 


Gravesend 2 

Sydenliam 4 

Omnibus  Route 

Brentwood 8 

Omnibus  Route 

Penshurst 2 

Richmond 1 


Romford 9 


Reigate  14 


Watford 3 

Penshurst 74 

Gravesend 8 


Watford 7 

Penshurst 6 

Greenwich 3 


Ingatestone   3 

Omnibus  Route 


Omnibus  Route 


Omnibus  Ronte 


Richmond It 

West  Draj'ton    3 

Edmonton 1 




Slough    24 


Woking 1 

Lea  Bridge    4 

Croydon 5 

Greenwich 3 










The  charges  at  inns  are  very  uncertain,  and  are  by  no  means 
proportioned  to  the  excellence  of  the  accommodation.     It  may 
be  as  well  to  give  the  traveller  a  scale  of  the  usual  charges  made 
at  some  of  the  best  inns  in  the  country,  and  he  should  not  on  any 
account  pay  more,  unless  he  has  had  unusual  accommodation: 

s.     d.      s.   d. 
Breakfast  -         -         -         -         16  to  19 

Dinner  ------         2     0 

Half-a-pintof  Wine   -         -         -         -     1     3 

Tea 16 

Bed 16 


Fee   to   the  waiter,  3^.   for   each   meal;    chambermaid,    6d.; 

"boots,"  for  cleaning  boots  and  shoes,  2d.     If  more  charges  are 

made  than  the  above,  the  traveller  should  deduct  the  overcharge, 

and  then  put  down  the  fees  he  gives  to  the  servants,  thus : 

Breakfast       -----         2     0 

Dinner      -        -         -         -         -         -30 

Tea 20 

Fire,  bed,  and  lights  -        -        -        -    3     0       *.     rf. 

Wine     ------         1     6 — -11     6 

Such  charges  as  these  have  been  often  attempted  at  some  of  the 
worst  inns  near  London. 

Underneath  this  bill  the  traveller  should  write — 

Overcharge  Dinner    -         -         -         -     1     0 

„  Breakfast      -         -         -         0     3 

„         Tea  -         -         -        -     0     6 

„         Wine   -         -         -         -         0     3 

Bed,  etc. 

Then  write — 

Waiter  - 
Boots    - 



—  3     0 

8     6 







1      *» 

Total        -        -        -  9     8 


The  following  hints  make  no  pretence  of  exhausting  all  the  inte- 
resting features  of  scenery  or  antiquities  near  London,  which 
is  surrounded  by  beauties  little  dreamt  of  by  those  who  do  not 
take  the  trouble  of  becoming  acquainted  with  them.  I'robably 
many  things  are  passed  by,  equally  worthy  of  a  visit,  still  those 
which  are  noted,  will,  I  am  certain,  in  nowise  disappoint  any 
one: — 


Eastward. — To  Greenwich,  by  river  steamer  or  railway — see  the 
College,  built  by  Sir  C.  Wren — walk  through  the  Park — over 
Blackheath — through  Lee  to  Eltham — see  the  ruins  of  the  old 
Palace,  now  a  barn — thence  by  Shooter's  Hill  to  Woolwich,  a 
walk  of  about  ten  miles — return  by  river  steamer. 

Greenwich. — 1.  Those  who  want  a  couple  of  hours'  fresh  air 
cannot  do  better  than  go  to  Greenwich,  and  stroll  about  the 
hillocks  and  dales  of  the  Park. 

2.  With  an  hour's  more  time  the  circuit  of  Blackheath 
may  be  taken. 

3.  Go  across  the  Park  and  out  at  the  West  Gate,  and  then 
up  the  lane  opposite  the  gate,  and  through  pleasant  footpaths 
to  the  pretty  village  of  Charlton,  and  return  the  same  way,  or 
by  the  Blackheath  Road,  and  through  the  Park  by  the  Black- 
heath Gate. 

4.  Go  to  Charlton  as  in  No.  3,  and  keep  on  to  Woolwich 
Common — go  up  to  Shooter's  Hill,  and  return  to  Greenwich 
by  the  Blackheath  Road. 

5.  Go  to  Charlton  as  at  No.  3,  cross  to  Woolwich  Lower 
Road,  and  if  possible  see  the  Charlton  Sand-pits,  in  which 
many  strata  are  seen  at  once,  and  proceed  by  the  low  road 
either  to  the  steamer  at  Woolwich,  or  back  by  the  low  road  to 

To  Woolwich  by  steamer — then  cross  the  Common  and  go 
over  Shooter's  Hill  towards  Gravesend — then  take  the  second 
or  third  turning  to  the  left  and  get  back  to  Woolwich. 

From  Gravesend  steamer — ^land  at  Erith,  the  country  being 
pretty  behind  the  village  and  church — return  by  steamer,  or 
walk  through  Plumstead  to  Woolwich. 

From  Gravesend  steamer — land  at  Pai^eet,  and  see  the 
chalk-pits  and  public  gardens,  etc. 

From  Gravesend  b)'  steamer — go  up  Windmill  Hill,  and  to 
the  Rosherville  Gardens. 

To  Gravesend  by  steamer — walk  or  ride  to  Rochester,  seven 
miles — see  Castle,  which  was  built  by  Bishop  Gundulph,  in 
William  Rufus'  reign :  the  tower  is  a  very  fine  ancient  military 
ruin — Cathedral,  whose  western  front  is  one  of  the  most  inte- 
resting remains  of  Romanesque  or  Anglo-Norman  Architec- 
ture in  our  country;  the  crypt  here  is  very  remarkable  for  its 
extent — back  to  Gravesend. 

To  Gravesend — ride  to  Rochester  and  walk  to  Maidstone — 

day's  excursions  around  the  metropolis.  37 

see  the  Old  Cromlech,  Kit's  Cotty  House,  which  is  midway 
between  Maidstone  and  Rochester,  and  back,  about  IG  miles. 

To  Gravesend — walk  to  Cobham,  about  five  miles — see 
Cobham  Hall,  an  extensive  but  not  very  decorated  Elizabethan 
house,  with  many  pictures;  it  is  open  on  Fridays  only.  Eleven 
till  Four,  by  tickets  purchaseable  at  Caddell's  Library,  Graves- 
end,  2*.  each — see  Cobham  church,  with  its  tine  old  architec- 
tonic tombs,  and  return  the  same  way. 

South-Eastward. — A  visit  in  the  summer  to  Sevenoaks  and  its 
neighbourhood  has  many  attractions.  Situate  between  two 
ridges  of  the  chalk  hills,  and  abundantly  decorated  with  fine 
trees,  the  scenery  is  extremely  beautiful  and  luxuriant  on  all 
sides.  Knowle  Park  is  celebrated  for  its  beech  trees ;  and  the 
house  is  one  of  the  most  interesting  and  earliest  existing  speci- 
mens of  Domestic  architecture.  Many  of  the  rooms  remain 
nearl}'  in  their  original  state;  and  the  collection  of  paintings, 
chiefly  historical  portraits,  is  very  extensive.  The  grounds 
are  open  to  all;  and  the  house  is  liberally  shewn  at  all  times, 
even  on  Sundays.  There  is  so  much  to  be  seen  and  enjoyed 
at  Sevenoaks,  that  it  will  be  best  to  get  there  in  the  quickest 
way  possible,  which  is  by  carriage  of  some  kind. 

To  Sydenham,  by  Croydon  Railway — walk  to  Bromley,  over 
Hayes  Common,  across  to  Chislehurst,  and  back  through 
Bromley  to  Sydenham,  a  delightful  walk  of  about  15  miles, 
especially  towards  the  latter  end  of  the  spring. 

To  Croydon  by  Railway,  over  Croomhurst  Hill,  which 
abounds  with  lilies  of  the  valley — to  West  Wickham  and  Ad- 
dington — to  Keston,  over  Hayes  Common — see  the  Roman 
Encampment — to  Bromley — to  Sydenham,  a  walk  of  about 
15  miles,  and  return  by  Railway. 

South. — To  Red  Hill,  by  Brighton  Railway — walk  through  Rei- 
gate  to  Dorking,  over  Box  Hill,  in  June,  when  almost  the 
whole  tribe  of  orchideae  may  be  found  in  blossom  there — 
through  Mickleham,  Leatherhead,  to  Ditton  Railway  Station, 
about  20  miles,  return  to  Town  by  South  Western  Railway. 

Ride  to  Croydon  by  Brighton  Railway — walk  through  Car- 
shalton,  over  Banstead  Downs,  by  Walton-on-the-Hill  to 
Gatton — back  from  Merstham  by  Croydon  Railway,  about  16 


Ride  to  Sydenham  by  Croydon  Railway — walk  by  the 
Beulah  Spa,  through  Norwood,  Tooting  to  Wimbledon,  about 
nine  miles — to  Town  by  South  Western  Railway. 



South-West. — Ride  to  Pitton  Marsh  by  South  Western  Railway 
— walk  through  Esher — see  Wolsey's  Well,  and  the  Ruins  of 
t!ie  Water-Gate  House  of  Wolsey's  Palace  on  the  Mole — 
to  St.  George's  Hill,  the  highest  of  the  Surrey  Hills,  near  the 
Tiiames — to  Weybridge  Station — total  distance,  about  seven 
miles — return  by  railway.  Another  walk:  by  Esher  to  Pain's 
Hill,  nearCobhani — to  the  Ruins  of  Newark  Abbey,  near  Pin- 
ford — by  banks  of  Basingstoke  Canal  to  Weybridge  Station — 
about  15  miles. 

Ride  to  Woking  by  South  Western  Railway,  and  by  coach 
to  Guildford — walk  on  the  ridge  of  hills  to  Dorking  and  to 
Reigate,  with  magnificent  prospects  over  miles  of  cultivation 
at  every  step — total  distance  about  20  miles — return  from  Red 
Hill  station  on  Brighton  Railway. 

Ride  to  Ditton  Marsh,  walk  to  Ditton  Ferry,  and  cross  the 
River,  pursue  the  Towing-path  up  the  Thames  (crossing 
Hampton  Bridge),  to  Weybridge :  or  instead,  walk  by  the 
picturesque  banks  of  the  Mole,  to  Moulsey,  and  follow  the 
Towing-path  to  Weybridge.  Pass  by  the  Railway  Station,  and 
over  St.  George's  Hill  into  the  Walton  Road.  Return  by 
South  Western  Railway  from  Walton  Station.  The  Marshy 
ground  on  the  east  side  of  Walton  Bridge,  is  called  "  Cowey 
Stakes."  Here  tradition  relates  that  Julius  Caesar  crossed  the 
Thames.  Here  the  eye  which  is  keen  after  the  picturesque, 
will  find  much  that  is  gratifying  in  several  views  of  the  three 
bridges;  and  Mr.  Barry's  elegant  campanile  to  Lord  Tanker- 
ville's  Villa,  will  not  be  unnoticed.  If  the  present  Lessee  of 
Oatland  Park  (Lord  F.  Egerton),  had  not  forbidden  its  use  as 
a  thoroughfare,  the  walk  might  be  varied,  through  the  varieties 
of  its  fine  foliage. 

Let  those  who  do  not  grudge  the  expense  take  the  earliest 
Train  to  Southampton,  and  pass  the  day  among  the  Ruins  of 
Netley  Abbey,  begun  about  1239;  beautiful  remnants  of  the 
lancet-arch,  roofless,  except  with  canopies  formed  by  very 
tall  overhanging  ash  trees,  which  grow  among  the  ruins. 
Another  day  may  be  well  spent  in  Winchester ;  several  hours 
being  devoted  to  its  Cathedral.  Dalloway  briefly  instances  its 
peculiarities  as  follows:  "  Wykeham's"  nave  (A.D.  1394)  is 
considered  as  one  of  the  finest  in  England,  and  longer  than 
that  of  York.  The  exterior  of  the  Choir  and  Lady's  Chapel  is 
of  most  beautiful  workmanship  of  the  fifteenth  century.  There 
are  four  very  fine  Sacella,  or  Sepulchral  Chapels,  for  the 
Bishops  Wykeham,  Waynflete,  Beaufort,  and  Fox.   Wykeham 

day's  excursions  around  the  metropolis.  39 

is  said  to  have  surrounded  the  piers  erected  by  Wakelyn  with 
Pilasters.  The  Choir  is  under  the  Tower,  as  at  Gloucester. 
The  exquisite  Screen  behind  the  altar  was  the  work  of  Bishop 
Fox,  to  whom  Speed  attributes  not  only  the  additions  to  the 
Choir,  but  the  vaulting  and  glassing  (with  stained  glass)  of 
the  whole  Church. 

A  still  more  extensive  Tour  along  the  Undercliff  of  the 
Isle  of  Wight,  or  even  round  the  Island  in  a  Steamer,  or  a 
Geological  Excursion  to  Allum  Bay  and  the  Needles,  is  by  no 
means  impracticable  in  a  long  summer's  day. 

Ride  to  Weybridge  b}'  South  Western  Railway  —  walk 
through  Chertsey,  Staines,  and  Windsor  on  to  Slough  Station, 
about  1 6  miles,  return  by  Great  Western  Railway. 

West. — By  River  Steamer,  when  the  tide  is  favourable,  to  Kew — 
see  the  Gardens  there — walk  by  the  side  of  the  Thames  to 
Richmond  Hill,  through  Richmond  Park,  over  Wimbledon 
Common  to  Wimbledon  Station,  about  eight  miles — return  by 
South  Western  Railway. 

By  South  Western  Railway  to  Kingston  Station — cross 
Ditton  Ferry — see  the  Gardens  and  Grounds  of  Hampton 
Court,  through  Bushy  Park,  especially  when  the  horse  chest- 
nuts are  in  blossom — through  the  pretty  country  town  of 
Kingston,  across  Richmond  Park  to  Richmond,  about  ten 
miles — return  by  Richmond  Steamer. 

By  Great  Western  Railway  to  Slough  —  walk  to  Windsor, 
remarking  the  views  about  Eton — by  Frogmore  Lodge,  along 
the  Long  Walk  to  Virginia  Water,  and  back  to  Windsor, 
about  fourteen  miles — ride  in  Omnibus  to  Slough  Station, 
fare  6d.,  and  return  by  Railway. 

By  Great  Western  Railway  to  Maidenhead  Station — walk 
to  Henley,  and  return  by  the  Tow-path  of  the  Thames,  or 
descend  the  river  in  a  boat  or  barge.  Some  of  the  finest 
scenery  of  the  Tlmmes  lies  between  Henley  and  Maidenhead. 

By  Great  Western  Railway  to  Reading  —  walk  by  the 
banks  of  the  River  to  Maidenhead,  and  return  by  Railway. 

(Two  Days'  Excursion).  Proceed  as  far  as  Reading  bj-  the 
Great  Western  Railway — walk  seven  miles  to  Oakingham, 
where  are  two  comfortable  Inns  (one  kept  by  Mrs.  Wise), 
thence  by  Eversley  to  Hartley  Row  for  the  night.  The  Lion 
is  the  "  head "  Inn,  but  the  Swan  will  do  for  him  who  has 
little  pride  and  few  sixpences.     Take  the  road  opposite  the 


Swan  to  the  church,  through  Crondall  and  Farnham,  or  go 
direct  to  the  Farnboro'  Station,  which  is  six  miles  on  the 
London  side  of  Farnham ;  if  strength  and  zeal  hold  out,  walk 
still  on  to  Woking  Common,  and  take  the  Southampton  Train 
to  London.  We  would  rather  recommend  the  Inn  at  Frimley, 
a  mile  from  the  Farnboro'  Station,  if  there  be  time;  it  is  beau- 
tifully situated,  and  half  a  day  may  be  whiled  away  in  the 
Park  and  Heath  which  surround  it. 

North  West. — By  Birmingham  Railway  to  Harrow  —  ascend 
the  hill — see  the  church  and  the  fine  panoramic  views.  It  is 
worth  while  in  the  walk  back  to  town,  seeing  the  Kensal  Green 
Cemetery.  The  first  road  on  the  north-east  side  of  the  Ceme- 
tery leads  across  the  meadows  over  the  Hippodrome,  into  the 
Bayswater  road,  and  is  by  far  the  pleasantest  way  into  town. 

By  Birmingham  Railway  to  Heme!  Hempstead  —  walk 
through  Gorhambury  Park  to  St  Albans  —  see  the  Abbey, 
the  nave  of  which  is  one  of  the  few  authentic  specimens  of 
Saxon  architecture.  It  is  among  the  largest  of  our  Abbeys. 
Thence  to  W^atford,  and  if  there  is  time,  see  Cashioburj'  and 
its  old  picturesque  mansion,  about  sixteen  miles — return  by 

Ride  to  Tring,  by  Birmingham  Railway. — Walk  to  Wen- 
dover,  and  if  you  desire  good  and  reasonable  entertainment, 
pay  Mrs.  Rose  a  visit  at  the  Crown  Inn.  Best  to  order  a 
dinner  there,  and  whilst  it  is  preparing  walk  to  "Chequers," 
once  inhabited  by  Oliv er  Cromwell.  Examine  the  magnificent 
box  trees  in  its  neighbourhood,  and  a  spot  called  "  Velvet 
Lawn  ;"  return  to  Wendover,  and  from  Tring  by  Railway.  If 
a  second  day's  absence  from  town  is  possible,  pursue  the  course 
of  the  Chiltern  Hills  to  High  Wycombe,  thence  to  Marlow, 
and  by  the  Thames  to  Maidenhead. 

North. — By  Northern  and  Eastern  Railway  to  Waltham  Abbey 
— see  the  Abbey.  One  of  the  most  perfect  remains  of  Saotoii 
Ci->>,>  a  \\  architecture  near  the  Metropolis.  Walk  across  Epping 
Forest,  through  Loughton  and  Cliigwell,  and  across  Hainhault 
Forest  to  Romford,  about  thirteen  miles — return  by  Eastern 
Counties  Railway. 

Ride  to  Hatfield  and  back.  The  three  Parks  and  Mansions 
with  their  contents — of  Brockett  Hall,  Penshanger  Park,  and 
Hatfield  Park,  are  most  pleasant  subjects  for  a  day's  excursion. 

From  West  End  of  the  Town,  go  by  Regent's  Park,  Prim- 
rose Hill,  and  footpath  to  Hampstead;  go  about  the  Heath  on 

day's  excursions  around  the  metropolis.  41 

both  sides  of  the  road ;  go  thence  by  road  to  Highgate,  or  by 
footpath  through  Vale  of  Health,  and  by  Caen  Wood  to  back 
road  to  Highgate;  or  the  same  way,  turning  at  the  ponds,  up 
a  by-road,  through  the  grounds  of  Caen  Wood,  leading  into 
the  road  between  Hampstead  and  Highgate. 

Highgate  to  Hornsey  and  Muswell  Hill,  or  to  Muswell 
Hill  and  Colney  Hatch,  and  back,  or  cross  to  Finchley. 

Hampstead  to  Hendon,  and  return  by  Edgeware  Road,  or 
cross  on  through  Neardon  and  Willesden. 

The  interest  of  a  walk  is  very  much  enhanced  by  some  know- 
ledge of  the  natural  history  of  the  country  explored.  A  list  of 
the  more  rare  plants  which  grow  around  the  Metropolis,  would  be 
too  long  for  the  present  work ;  and  the  reader,  if  he  is  not  already 
acquainted  with  them,  had  best  consult  Turner  and  Dillwyn's 
Botanist's  Guide,  where  the  plants  peculiar  to  each  county  of 
England  and  Wales  are  classified  under  their  respective  counties. 
The  neighbourhoods  of  Boxhill  near  Dorking,  and  of  Walton-on- 
Thames,  may  both  be  instanced  as  spots  rich  in  Botanical  rarities. 
The  objection  of  length  does  not,  however,  apply  to  a  general 
survey  of  the  geological  features  of  the  metropolitan  neighbour- 
hoods ;  and  the  following  contribution  of  a  well-wisher  to  this 
little  book  is  therefore  inserted.  It  will  be  useful  too  as  a  Botani- 
cal Guide,  inasmuch  as  each  soil  has  its  own  especial  plants. 


The  soil  on  which  London  is  built,  and  that  of  the  country 
around,  to  a  great  distance  in  all  quarters,  consists  of  various 
strata  of  clays,  sands,  and  gravel  reposing  on  a  chalk  bed  or  basin. 
The  brim  of  this  basin  has  been  carried  away  on  the  sea-side,  but 
on  the  land-sides  it  remains,  forming  the  elevated  ridges  of  chalk 
hills  which  terminate  at  Dover  on  the  south-east,  and  Hunstanton 
in  Norfolk  on  the  north-east.  The  clay  beds  extend  along  the 
sides  of  the  Thames  forming  the  elevations  of  Highgate,  the  sub- 
strata of  Hampstead,  Hendon,  Harrow,  and  mixed  up  with  gravel, 
extend  through  Uxbiidge,  Beaconsfield.  to  the  chalk  at  High 
Wycombe.  Clay  with  deposits  of  gravel  and  a  little  sand  form 
the  chief  soil  of  all  the  south-east  and  north-east  of  Essex.  The 
hills  on  the  Surrey  side  of  London  are  of  clay,  as  at  New  Cross, 
Nun-Head  Hill,  Heme  Hill,  Brixton,  and  on  to  Wandsworth, 
where  they  terminate  by  an  inconsiderable  elevation  above  the 
alluvial  meadows  of  Battersea  on  the  shores  of  the  Thames.  This 
clay  is  covered  in  various  places  by  immediate  deposits  of  sand  of 
various  kinds,  forming  the  beautiful  elevation  of  Hampstead  Heath, 
and  those  invaluable  waste  lands  (invaluable  for  the  purposes  of 



health  and  out-of-door  enjoyment,  because  waste  and  sterile)  of 
Clapham  Common,  Wandsworth,  Wimbledon.  Extending  beyond 
the  valley  of  the  Wandle,  Kingston,  and  the  valley  of  the  Mole, 
they  appear  again  at  Esher,  forming  that  immense  tract  of  sandy 
heath  which  reaches  to  Ripley,  Woking,  and  Bagshot  Heath,  and 
present  the  picturesque  heights  of  St.  George's  Hill  and  St.  Ann's 
Hill.  They  reach  to  Hartley  Row.  where  appears  a  little  clay,  and 
as  far  as  the  chalk  at  Odiham  and  Basingstoke.  They  pass  north- 
ward to  Bracknel,  and  near  to  Oakingham,  where  are  found  the 
gravels  and  clays  of  the  valley  of  the  Loddon  and  the  Thames,  and 
of  Windsor  Forest.  The  sand,  gravel,  and  clay,  alternating  with 
one  another,  form  the  little  frequented  but  delicious  sylvan  scenery 
of  Eversley,  Hartley  Row,  and  Crondall. 

upp EH  Marine 
Harrow       .•'  Botley  Hill 

A  rude  but  not  altogether  inappropriate  idea  may  be  formed  of 
the  London  basin  as  it  is  called,  by  considering  the  chalk  hills 
which  extend  from  Norfolk  to  Dover,  as  forming  the  edge  of  a 
fire  shovel,  the  hollow  of  which  has  been  scooped  out  by  torrents 
of  water  (the  deluge  of  the  ancient  world),  and  its  contents  borne 
away  into  the  sea.  An  immense  hollow  area  has  been  left,  which 
has  been  partially  filled  up  (by  the  operation  of  successive  torrents 
and  floods  of  water)  with  sand,  gravel,  and  clay — washed,  drifted, 
and  accumulated  in  all  sorts  of  tortuous  forms,  according  to  the  force 
and  direction  of  the  various  currents  which  have  flowed  over  it. 
The  Thames  may  be  considered  as  the  great  residuary  drain,  when 
all  had  become  quiet  and  had  formed  its  last  level.  By  a  glance  at 
the  map,  the  chalk  liills  which  form  the  edge  or  brim  of  this 
vast  hollow,  may  be  traced  from  Dover  running  westernly  by 
Canterbury,  Rochester,  Wrotham,  Godstone,  Reigate,  Guildford, 
Basingstoke,  Hungerford,  through  Berkshire  and  Buckingham- 
shire, approaching  London  at  St.  Albans,  Hertford,  Ware,  Bishop's 
Stortford,  all  the  north-western  part  of  Essex,  as  at  Saffron-Walden, 
the  western  side  of  Sufiblk,  as  at  Bury  St.  Edmunds,  and  termi- 


Los  Angeles 

This  book  is  DUE  on  the  last 

date  stamped  below. 

(liM   619Z5 
NOV  14  AST* 

10m-7,'71  (P6348S8)— Z-63 


A     000  106  612     5